click image to view documentary…
Appalachian Mountain Culture and Ghost Stories
Ask many longtime residents of the Southern Appalachian Mountains whether they believe in ghosts and the answer is likely to be an emphatic “no.” In this strongly Protestant region of the South, humorously called the “buckle of the Bible Belt,” such beliefs are considered by some to be against the teachings of Scripture. “Th’ Bible preaches that when somethin’ dies, it’s gone,” they might say. “If you don’t believe th’ Bible, you don’t believe nothin’.”
But to others, ghost stories have become legends passed down from the family hearth to the country store porch and beyond. Unlike folk tales, which are recognized as fiction by both storyteller and audience, legends are accounts of events that the storyteller believes to have actually occurred, either to himself or to someone else in the past.
These legends generally contain a human character who comes into contact with the supernatural. How this character chooses to deal with this encounter enables the storyteller to teach a lesson about society’s ethical and moral codes. Therefore, although a belief in revenants (returners from the dead) may contradict Biblical teachings, ghost stories still contains life lessons that were important to this Appalachian mountain community.
The fear and isolation associated with early mountain life helped give birth to many paranormal accounts that, in turn, evolved into ghost stories. As in other regions of the South, however, modern influences have diluted the art of storytelling in the mountains. This is why some old-timers are likely to tell you that “there used t’be more ghosts then than now.”
Southern Appalachian Mountains
The Appalachian Mountains are a narrow and extensive mountain system that parallels the eastern coast of North America for approximately 1,212 miles. Formed about 250 million years ago, it is one of the oldest mountain systems on Earth.
The Appalachian Mountains stretch from Newfoundland all the way down to the northern sections of Alabama and Georgia. They are separated from the eastern Coastal Plain by a massive fall line. The system is a mixture of mountains, valleys, high ridges and wide, dissected plateaus. Dense forests cover much of the system, and some rock structures date back to the Precambrian and early Paleozoic eras.
Two of the most prominent Appalachian ranges can be found in the Southern United States. The Great Smoky Mountains in Tennessee and North Carolina have some of the tallest and most rugged peaks in the system, with some towering over 6,000 feet (Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina is the highest peak east of the Mississippi River at 6,684 feet). The backbone of the system, the Blue Ridge, starts in Georgia and stretches north to Pennsylvania.
On the eastern side of the Southern Appalachian Mountains, between the Blue Ridge and the fall line, is a rolling plateau known as the Piedmont, which takes up large portions of Georgia, the Carolinas and Virginia. On the western side is the Cumberland Plateau, stretching from southern West Virginia to Alabama. In-between the Great Smoky Mountains and the Cumberland is a hilly region called the Ridge and Valley, which stretches from central Alabama up to New York State.
Several Native American tribes lived in the Appalachian Mountains before the arrival of white settlers. In the South, one of the most prominent tribes was the Cherokee. According to Cherokee legend, the Great Smoky Mountains were formed by a giant buzzard circling above the earth after a great flood. When this buzzard reached the Smokies, he plummeted to the earth in exhaustion. Where his massive wings touched the earth, the mountain valleys appeared.
The Cherokees learned to coexist with the European settlers. They even fought with them against the British during the War of 1812. But with the discovery of gold in north Georgia, the federal government made a concerted effort to drive the Cherokees out, culminating in the infamous Trail of Tears removal of 1838.
There are some descendants of the original Cherokees living in the Southern Appalachian Mountains today. Some believe that they are descendants of Tsali, a brave warrior who gave himself up for murdering a white soldier during the Trail of Tears. In exchange, Colonel William Thomas, a white friend, promised Tsali that his tribe could remain in the hills. Other Cherokees simply disappeared into the mountains.
Early mountain life was difficult for the European settlers. Completely isolated from the outside world, they struggled to survive on the rocky hillsides. But they were also a fiercely independent group, with their own system of law and unique cultural traits. Despite the widespread changes caused by modern influences, bits and pieces of early Appalachian Mountain culture can still be found today.
Much of the Appalachian Mountain system is now used for recreational purposes. Parks such as Great Smoky Mountains National Park attract thousands of visitors a year while also serving as wildlife sanctuaries. The Appalachian Trail, a 2,143-mile footpath stretching between Mount Katahdin in Maine and Springer Mountain in Georgia, was completed in 1937. This trail is used and maintained by stout hikers from around the world.
Early Mountain Life
The original Appalachian settlers were largely Scotch-Irish immigrants who clawed their way through the lush and rugged hill country in the early 1700s. Clannish and fiercely independent folk, these settlers had rebelled against the restrictive laws of their homeland, and were in search of a place where their Protestant beliefs could flourish without interference. They were awed by the dense hardwood forests teaming with game, the fresh, sparkling rivers filled with fish, and the eerie mist creeping through the valleys that reminded them so much of the Scottish Highlands back home (this is how the Smoky Mountains got their name).
Deep within the cool hollows, the settlers staked their claims. The virgin forests provided plentiful building materials for their log cabins and furniture. They raised small crops of corn, potatoes and black-eyed peas, and fruit trees and gourds to make containers. The men were crack shots, hunting the woods day and night for “beasties” (animals) with the help of their loyal dogs, which they would proudly describe as “part hound, part cur” (or fierce breed of dog).
Appalachian Log Cabin
Inside the tiny, one room cabins, the women would dye clothes with berries and bark gathered from the forest and cook dinner on the huge stone fireplaces. In-between chores, they would knit quilts on their looms, using elaborate patterns with unique names like “nine-patch,” “double-wedding ring” and “dove-in-the-window.”
Corn shuckings, house raisings and log rollings were regular community events. But the most popular social events were the mountain dances, also called “play parties” since the church didn’t approve of dancing. These parties were generally casual and easygoing. Fiddlers, sometimes accompanied by a banjo and dulcimer would play alternately humorous and plaintive ballads that reminded the settlers of their homeland and lost relatives. Occasionally, the musicians would make up ballads about interesting community events. These “play parties” were some of the only fun times that these hard working settlers ever had.
Whenever their way of life was threatened, these settlers fought back fiercely. After long skirmishes with the Cherokees and the British army, some mountain communities found themselves at odds with the Confederate army. These self-reliant people had never had to rely on slaves for labor, and couldn’t support the South’s secession from the Union. As a result, some communities were regularly harassed by the Confederate army, who took prisoners, vandalized property and stole livestock. In some areas, children were placed along the mountain tops to warn of approaching Confederate troops.
Isolated from the Confederacy and the Federal government, which the mountain people later blamed for not coming to their aid during the Civil War, many mountain communities turned away from the outside world. Little immigration took place through the nineteenth century, leading to intermarriage within families. But the mountain people were always kind to wayward strangers. Their doors were always left open for strangers to “light and hitch” (visit) with the family, and a bed was always prepared.
Early Photograph Appalachian Mountains
Although the mountain people tamed small plots of land around their homes, they were still surrounded by miles of mysterious, dense forest. They were already a superstitious group – everyone knew that the moon affected planting cycles, the tail of a hound dog attracted lightning and that an axe placed under the bed of a birthing motherslove would kill the pain. But as night fell across the hills, the seemingly impenetrable forest would come alive with spooky sounds and lights. Whatever these settlers heard or saw found their way into the stories told around the fireplace at night.
Although modern influences have had a dramatic impact on early mountain culture, some of the “old timey” ways can still be found in the hills today.
Modern Mountain Life
The second and third generations of the original Appalachian settlers eventually pressed against the limits of sustenance. Migrating from the low valleys into the creek branches, sub-valleys and steep hillsides, these families had extreme difficulty farming the rocky terrain. Barely able to make a living from their crops, many families fell into poverty, leading to widespread disease and malnutrition.
Early twentieth century social workers were horrified with some of the conditions they found there: little or no sanitation, children lacking shoes or fresh clothes, families with ten to twelve kids crammed into dirty, one-room shacks. Distrusting of “furriners” toting little black bags filled with “black magic,” some mountain families became their own pharmacists, using odd assortments of herbs, tonics and roots to treat everything from typhoid fever to measles. As a result, the mortality rate soared.
These social workers brought what was to become the first wave of modernization to the hills. Trained nurses would set up shop in the communities and teach families about personal hygiene and homemaking skills. Fathers were taught how to read and write. Corps of midwives traveled throughout the hills helping deliver babies. Some of these social workers were indeed heroes, riding across terrible mountain roads, swollen streams and swinging bridges to reach the isolated families.
Early Appalachian Lumber Workers
In the early 1900s, large lumber companies began to eye the Southern Appalachian region. The region had been generally bypassed for the flatlands of Mississippi and Louisiana, but after these areas had been fully “slashed and burned,” lumber scouts began discovering the virgin hardwood forests in the hills. Mill towns and railroads sprung up seemingly overnight, scarring the landscape and causing major pollution and erosion problems. Human life and land were cheap for many of these companies: loggers were forced to work extremely long hours with the constant threat of accidents, dismemberment and death. Despite the risks, however, many mountain residents were forced to work for the companies to support their impoverished families.
With the construction of new highways, modern influences began to have a dramatic impact on mountain life and culture. The influx of radio, television and printed matter diluted traditional mountain speech. Younger families, faced with a bleak future in the hills, migrated to the cities. One by one, the mountain communities emptied.
But perhaps there’s something about the fear associated with rapid modernization that has lately made people nostalgic for the “old ways.” For thousands of tourists visit the Appalachian Mountains each year searching for signs of early mountain culture. Past the curio shops and amusement parks, they are likely to see and hear traces of early mountain life: an elderly farmer still plowing his steep fields with a team of horses, story swapping on country store porches, traditional bluegrass music on a community radio station, hand-carved crafts, fiddles and dulcimers, small white churches dotting the hillsides. In mountain speech, one can still hear words and expressions from pre-colonial times.
Although it is unclear what will happen in the next century, our constant need for the reassuring simplicity of the “old ways” is likely to keep Appalachian Mountain culture alive for generations to come.
The Great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and North Carolina represent some of the highest and most rugged peaks in the Appalachian Mountains. Many peaks are in excess of 6,000 feet, with Clingmans Dome in eastern Tennessee being the tallest at 6,644 feet.
The name “Smoky” comes from the bluish mist that envelops the hills. Abundant rainfall and fertile soils have given the Smokies one of the world’s finest examples of temperate deciduous forest. A wide variety of flora is in abundance here, as are many different species of birds and other wildlife.
Due to wildlife preservation policies, much of the area looks as it did to the early Native American and European settlers. Restored log cabins and barns from the pioneer era are scattered throughout the area.
By the beginning of the twentieth century, the Smokies were threatened by lumbering and mining companies. Although these industries brought jobs to mountain families, they wrecked havoc on the environment. By the late 1920s, a move was underway by the federal government to turn the Great Smoky Mountains into a protected wildlands sanctuary. Thanks to a large donation from John D. Rockefeller, along with community efforts in Tennessee and North Carolina, over 400,000 acres of land were acquired by the government, and Great Smoky Mountains National Park was established in 1930.
Like other remnants of early Appalachian mountain life, the old time speech of the original settlers has been largely eroded away by modernization.
Most of the original settlers were immigrants from the English Isles, although some German and Dutch settlers also made the journey. They brought with them colorful, Elizabethan era words and phrases which one can find in the works of Shakespeare.
As time passed, the isolation of mountain life transformed the language. Words were mispronounced, phrases and sentences were rearranged, and new words were created to fit the rugged mountain life these settlers faced. Intermarriage within mountain communities also caused this unique language to flourish for many years.
It wasn’t until the twentieth century that mountain language was transformed by the modern influences of the outside world. Radio, television and newspapers, along with an influx of modern schools and colleges, taught the younger generation a new, “grammatically correct” way of speaking. As the exodus of young families from the mountains grew, mountain dialect became less prevalent.
One can still hear some of the original dialect in the more isolated mountain communities. If you find yourself in such places, listen closely for unique words and sayings like:
a-childing : pregnant
corn-fed critters : poor people
a give-out : an announcement
arm baby : child small enough to be carried in someone’s arms
a whoop and a holler : a long distance
ain’t had much schoolhousing : isn’t very educated
bald faced whiskey : fresh whiskey from a still
bigging it and bigging it : exaggerating
bonny : good
butter-mouthed : speaking in flattering terms
chunk-washer : heavy rain
death watch : ticking insect in the wall of a house that meant death in the family.
dogtrot : covered passageway between two rooms
doney-girl : female sweetheart
et : ate
fur : far
graveyard cough : deep, tubercular cough
goozler : boy whose voice is changing
jairy : nervous
kiver : cover
knee child : child small enough to sit on a knee
lap child : child small enough to be held in a lap
pap : father
pile up with trash : associate with low class, immoral people
rip and tear : raise cain
since Heck was a pup : a long time ago
skun : skinned
turn right-handed : turn right
turn left-handed : turn left
yan : yonder
yan side : the farthest side