Saints Sergius and Herman of Valaam
Listen To Chants of Valaam Monastery
The Valaam Monastery, or Valamo Monastery is a stauropegic Orthodox monastery in Russian Karelia, located on Valaam, the largest island in Lake Ladoga, the largest lake in Europe.
It is not clear when the monastery was founded. As the cloister is not mentioned in documents before the 16th century, different dates – from 10th to 15th centuries – have been expounded. According to one tradition, the monastery was founded by a 10th-century Greek monk, Sergius, and his Karelian companion, Herman. Heikki Kirkinen inclines to date the foundation of the monastery to the 12th century. Contemporary historians consider even this date too early. According to the scholarly consensus, the monastery was founded at some point towards the end of the 14th century. John H. Lind and Michael C. Paul date the founding to between 1389 and 1393 based on various sources, including the “Tale of the Valaamo Monastery,” a sixteenth-century manuscript, which has the monstery founded during the archiepiscopate of Ioann II of Novgorod.
Whatever the truth may be, the Valaam monastery was a northern outpost of Eastern Orthodoxy against the heathens and, later, a western outpost against Catholic Christianity from Tavastia, Savonia and (Swedish) Karelia.
The power struggle between Russians and Swedes pushed the border eastwards in the 16th century; in 1578 the monastery was attacked and numerous monks and novices were killed by the Lutheran Swedes. The monastery was desolate between 1611 and 1715 after another attack of the Swedes, the buildings being burnt to the ground and the Karelian border between Russia and Sweden being drawn through Lake Ladoga. In the 18th century the monastery was magnificently restored, and in 1812 it came under the Russian Grand Duchy of Finland
The rebuilt church, now in Karelian/Zaonezh’e style, of Prophet Elijah’s skete on Lembos Island, ca. 10 km to the east of the main monastery, in the chain of islands extending towards the mainland in the east.
In 1917, Finland became independent, and the Finnish Orthodox Church became autonomous under the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, as previously it had been a part of the Russian Orthodox Church. Valaam (Valamo) was the most important monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church. The liturgic language was changed from Church Slavonic to Finnish, and the liturgic calendar from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. These changes led to bitter decade-long disputes in the monastic community of Valaam.
The territory was fought over by the Soviet Union and Finland during World War II. Due to the Winter War, the monastery was evacuated in 1940, when 150 monks settled in Heinävesi in Finland. This community still exists as New Valamo Monastery in Heinävesi. Having received evacuees from the Konevitsa monastery and Petsamo monastery, it is now the only monastery of the Finnish Orthodox Church.
From 1941 to 1944, during the Continuation War, an attempt was made to restore the monastery buildings at Old Valaam, but later the island served as a Soviet military base.
Since the original Valaam Monastery was bequeathed back to the Orthodox Church in 1989, it has been enjoying the personal patronage of Patriarch Alexey II, who frequented the cloister when a child. The monastery, whose buildings have been meticulously restored, has gained significant legal power over the island, in a push to return to a state of spiritual seclusion. After years of fruitless legal proceedings with the monastery, many residents of the island chose to leave, though a few still remain. The present Father Superior of the community is Bishop Pankraty (Zherdev) of Troitsk.
Saviour Transfiguration Cathedral, the main cathedral of the monastery.
The monastery of Valaam has a unique tradition of singing,called the Valaam chant, that combines some features of Byzantine and Znamenny chants. Thus, as in Byzantine chant, the singing is always 2-parts, comprising a melody and an ison, but, as in Znamenny chant, the scale structure is always diatonic, the ornamentation is simplified in comparison with Byzantine chant, and the melodies are more similar to that of ancient Znamenny Chant, at the edge of being considered a local variety of this tradition. These relative simplicity became one of the reasons for the experimental introduction of Valaam chanting in various parishes across Russia by the end of 20th century.
The monastery has a professional five-strong male-voice choir which tours the world to raise money for the on-going restoration of the buildings. Some of its music can be heard at the monastery’s website
Saint Sergius of Valaam founded Valaam Monastery together with Saint Herman of Valaam.
In tradition it is told that the founder, the Greek Sergius arrived from Byzantium to the north of Lake Ladoga. Initially he stayed at the island of Riekkala, close to the town of Sortavala, from where he moved to the island of Valaam. The island was an old pagan location and home to a site for sacrifice where many wise elders and local wizards lived.
Sergius settled to live in caves and a cave named Vaga became the Saint’s main habitation at the island of Valaam. From there he, without weapons and in the midst of violent pagans, preached the gospel and baptized the inhabitants of the island. Slowly a monastery grew on the premises and later it was to there the Karelian born Herman came and continued (not necessarily at the same time as Sergius) the work of Sergius. Herman is said to have been from the area close to Sortavala.
In some information it is said that the monastery was initially named Holy Trinity Monastery as opposed to the later name, Transfiguration Monastery. According to tradition the monastery was said to have been founded in the year 992, however, it’s a disputed date. The founding could have been in the 1100s or even as late as in the 1300s according to tradition. So any set date for the founding is not available. All dates are more or less a guess which the researchers are still arguing about.
According to tradition the relics of the Saints were moved to safety from Valaam to Novgorod in 1163 where they remained until 1180. At that point they were transferred in a festive procession back to Valaam and that date September 24/11 is still celebrated in the Orthodox Church of Finland as the day for return of the relics. The Announciation of the Theotokos chapel was later built out of stone on the location where the relics were received back to the island.
The Orthodox Church of Finland honors both of the founders of the monastery Saints Sergius and Herman of Valaam as Enlighteners of Karelia as well as Saints. Their day of memory is celebrated yearly on June 28. The day of memory of All Enlighteners of Karelia is celebrated on the Saturday between the last day of October and November 6th.
Valaam Monastery of the Transfiguration of the Savior, more popularly Valaam Monastery is a monastery of the Church of Russia located in Karelia in northwestern Russia on the island of Valaam in Lake Ladoga. The monastery was an outpost of evangelism in the north of Russia. In the 1790s the monastery provided the group of eight missionaries that was sent to Alaska in the North American northwest to evangelize the natives for Orthodox Christianity. This group of monastics included St Herman and St Juvenaly.
The origins of Valaam Monastery are not clear. Situated in the frontier of civilization the monastery was often attacked and burned as the area was contested by both Russians and Swedes. As the monastery is not mentioned in documents before the 16th century, different dates – from the 10th to 15th centuries – have been proposed for its founding. In Church tradition the founding of the Holy Transfiguration Valaam Monastery has been attributed to Ss. Sergius and Herman who were among the first missionaries to the city of Novgorod in the tenth century and created a monastery on Valaam Island in Lake Ladoga, north of Novgorod.
In the sixteenth century, Karelia became the battleground between Swedish and Russian forces as the Swedes pushed their borders eastward. Situated in Lake Ladoga, Valaam Monastery was in the midst of these struggles. In 1578, monks and novices were beaten to death by the (then) Lutheran Swedes. After another attack, the monastery was depopulated between 1611 and 1715. The buildings were burnt to the ground, and the Karelian border between Russia and Sweden was drawn through the lake. As the eighteenth century continued, the monastery recovered. Buildings were restored and built as the monastery prospered. By the beginning of the twentieth century the monastery had become very wealthy with about twenty smaller sketes under its control.
In 1793, the abbot of Valaam Monastery, Nazarius, was tasked by Catherine II with recruiting missionaries for the Russian colony in Alaska. A group of eight monks was assembled and departed Valaam on December 25, 1793 for Alaska. After a long journey through the length of Siberia the group arrived in Kodiak, Alaska on September 24, 1794.
In 1809, Sweden ceded Finland to Russia, which became an autonomous Grand Duchy. As the monastery was located in the Grand Duchy of Finland, when Finland gained its independence in 1917 Valaam became part of the Church of Finland. The Finnish Church became autonomous under the Church of Constantinople. During the Winter War between Finland and the Soviet Union in 1940, the monks from the monastery were evacuated to Heinavesi, Finland. With the end of the war the border was moved westward so that all of Lake Ladoga was within the Soviet Union. Having lost their former home, the monks who had moved to Finland formed the New Valaam Monastery at Heinavesi. It is the only monastery in the Finnish Church.
With the loss of its monastic community and the inclusion of Lake Ladoga in the Soviet Union the buildings of the original monastery on Valaam Island remained unused as a secular population moved on to the island. In time the island became a Soviet military base. As restrictions on the Orthodox Church in the Soviet Union eased during the 1980s, the original monastery was reactivated in 1989 and the facilities restored over the years.
In the late 1990s, Valaam Monastery gained significant legal power over the island under the Patriarch Alexei II. In an effort to return to a state of spiritual seclusion and enticed by the prospect of monopolizing the vast tourism industry on the island, the monastery forced many longtime residents to move out to the mainland. After years of fruitless legal proceedings, many residents of the island chose to leave rather than continue the fight, though a few still remain.
O, amazing island of Valaam
The visit to the monastery of Father
Ignaty Bryanchaninov in 1846
The island of Valaam is undoubtfully the most picturesque place of the old Finland. It is situated on the northern extremity of Ladoga lake. Come across it – you’ll face absolutely new nature, which has never been seen by one travelling only in Russia. This nature is wild, sullen, attracting with its wilderness in which inspired stern beauty may be observed. You see the cliffs, proudly protruding out of the abyss; they stand like giants on guard. You see the steep slopes covered with sand friendly bent to the lake. Some wasteman came out with a water carrier in his hand. He puts the water carrier on the ground and stares at the vast lake, listens to the noise of waves feeds his soul with spiritual observation. You see the bays, fenced by the granite walls, in which clear waters calmly doze, during a waterstorm in the lake. Some boat waits for the storm to pass and its owner watches with indifferent furious waves, which wanted to destroy his boat not long ago. You sail on the straits, where two opposite walls often come together so close that there’s enough space for one boat only. You drop the plumb line into the water and find out that there are many, many fathoms of water beneath your boat. You come into the bay deeply protruding into the island from the northern side, sail on this bay. On the right side of the bay you see the thick forest on the huge stone ledges, which vertically come out of the dark waters. This forest and these stones reflect in the bay water, that’s why the water is especially gloomy and the landscape looks the most sternly there. The bay broadens gradually and finally forms a big oval. You take your eyes off this unusual, horrifying picture and look at the opposite side. A big monastery on the high long granite rock is in front of you. Formerly the rock was covered with white moss. The monks have cleared it of the moss and now granite is freed from the grey hair that used to hang on its dark brow; it is majestic and stern in its renewed youth and its nakedness. From the cracks in the rock there grow lime trees, maples, elms; ivy coils the rock and under the rock there is an orchard. Green tops of the trees sway and make noise above the orchard; they are ready to swoop down but they are held by the roots deeply stuck into the rock. What a fascinating, wonderful picture! What a pleasure to see a man’s settlement, his hand, a plot of the land covered with his sweat and embellished with his works among the huge masses of wild, mighty nature! You pull up to the haven step on the shore. There is a granite ladder on the steep slope of the mountain and you go up to the monastery, which stands on the top of the mountain and takes extensive area there. A steep slope leads to this square from the South and from the West the square is formed by the sheer rock.
The plan of the monastery buildings consists of two quadrangles. One of them is in the other one. Having gone up to the square, you walk in the tree-lined walk to the sacred gates, which are in the outside quadrangle. Opposite these gates there are another gates, in the inside quadrangle. You pass them through: to the right side there is a cathedral church of God’s Transfiguration in the upper story. In the low story there is a church of Sergy and German – Valaam wonder-workers where their remains repose under wraps. The cathedral joints with the warm church of Assumption of Our Lady through the gallery. There is a sacristy in the gallery. On the other end which makes the southeast corner there is a church of Father Nikolay(*). To the left side opposite to the temples line there are monastic cells of the dean and of some brothers. Opposite to you there is a brother’s meal and kitchen and in the line where the gates are situated and where you stand there are monastic cells of turn hieromonks. Above the sacred gates of the outside quadrangle there is a church of St. Peter and Paul. In this line on the left there is a hotel, on the right – the confessor’s cell and the large junkyard (so called monastery pantry). In the opposite line there is the hospital of the monastery with a big number of cells in which the aged and the injured are placed. There are the churches attached to the hospital: in the upper story – of the Saint Trinity, in the low – of the Life-giving Source. In the line faced to the bay there is continuation of the hotel on one side and the office of the monastery on the other. In the east line there is a continuation of the junkyard on one side and the library of the monastery on the other. The library is rich and has a lot of manuscripts, which are mostly the creatures of saint fathers who wrote about monkhood. There are no plentiful materials on history of Valaam in the library. It was collected in the end of the previous and beginning of our centuries; the ancient manuscripts were burnt by fires and Swedes, just like everything ancient in the monastery. There is no building, not even a chapel, in the monastery which is at least a hundred years.
HISTORY OF VLAAM CHANT
It all began in 1993, when a quartet from the choir of the St. Petersburg Valaam metochion (city representation) was sent to the main monastery on Valaam Island. Their mission was to organize small concerts of traditional Valaam church music for tourists visiting the monastery. Initially intended to be a pleasant surprise for people taking a walking tour of Valaam, the concerts soon gained such popularity that they were included in the main programme of introduction to the island and monastery. People sometimes came to the holy place of Valaam just for rest and relaxation; they came loaded each with their worldly baggage of ideas and habits, but after hearing the hymns – as sung by the quartet – they would become more receptive to the subsequent excursion and to be better prepared to enter the main monastery church that was built over the relics of Saints Sergius and Herman, the founders of Valaam Monastery.
In the first years following the revival of monastic life on Valaam, there was no real monastery choir. A few times a year, on the particular feast days of the various churches, a professional choir from St. Petersburg would come to Valaam, and bring joy to the brothers with its powerful, harmonious sound. During the rest of the year the divine services were accompanied by the singing of one or two monks, who had other duties besides. Their repertoire was very limited. The monastery could not afford to maintain a large professional choir. Therefore, the metochion choir director was faced with the immediate challenge of organizing a full annual cycle of church music, based on a uniform style of singing, stemming from the old Valaam tradition of single-part Znamenny chant, employing only a few professional musicians. The task also included the gradual instruction of the monastery brethren with the aim of forming a full-fledged monastic choir.
The start of the Valaam ensemble’s career coincided with historic changes in Russia. After decades of militant atheism, many were turning to faith in Christ. Russian church music was now heard openly in concert halls. Access to the archives of the Russian National Library and the Library of the Academy of Sciences with their thousands of priceless manuscripts relating to choir music became much easier. The metochion’s repertoire started to grow, enriched by very interesting works of hymnody – not only Russian (Znamenny and Kievan chant), but also Greek, Bulgarian, Serbian, and Georgian choir music. Many of these pieces, arranged by Mikhail Rusanov, subsequently found their way into the Valaam ensemble’s concert programme. Besides exploring the manuscript legacy, the Valaam ensemble actively shared musical material with other choirs, each of which gradually acquired its own creative identity.
The ensemble’s first performances abroad took place in January 1995. Some 18 months earlier a group of tourists from the Finnish town of Eurajoki visited Valaam. They were so impressed by the performance of the Valaam Ensemble (which in those years took place in the upper church of the Resurrection skete), that the tour leader, Markku Tuominen, offered to organize a few concerts in Eurajoki and neighboring towns in Western Finland. This was the beginning of a collaboration that grew into a lasting friendship and became the starting point for subsequent tours to many parts of the world, some of them very distant. Two years later the ensemble again visited Eurajoki. In the following decade or so, the ensemble’s life centred around foreign tours. The choristers were invited to other regions of Finland, to Germany and Latvia. They made several visits each to Great Britain, the United States, Australia and Canada. This was a period of discoveries, which today is probably recalled with nostalgia by all the ensemble’s members. Cities large and small came and went one after another, and practically every concert was a resounding success. What was possibly more important for us was coming into contact with the huge world of the Russian diaspora. We met some truly wonderful people, who, while living far from the borders of Russia, worthily upheld the spirit of old Russia.
Another significant meeting took place in July 2006 and to a large extent determined the ensemble’s fate for the next few years. We met Sergey Nikolayevich Dolgykh, the warden of the Holy Trinity Church in the city of Mirny in Western Yakutia. A trip to that capital of a Siberian diamond-mining region was organized with his personal help in October of that year, for the feast of the Intercession of the Holy Virgin. Subsequently such trips became an annual event. Later our ensemble met the inhabitants of Aikhal, Udachny, Chernishevsky, Lensk and the capital of the Republic of Sakha, Yakutsk. The number of singers in our ensemble was increased to eight people. Our repertoire was enriched with new works and interpretations, composed especially for our tours to Yakutia-Sakha. In the last few years, we have increased the number of our performances in other places in Russia, such as Vologda, Cherepovets, Petrozavodsk, Yekaterinburg and Vyoshinskaya – the birthplace of the well known author Mikhail Sholokhov. Our ensemble visits Moscow on a regular basis – not only for meetings of the board of trustees of the Valaam Monastery, but also for other special occasions. Lovers of choral music in St. Petersburg have long been familiar with the Valaam ensemble, which they can hear during the annual Christmas and Easter festivals, and also with solo thematic projects in various city venues.
(Please visit also : http://www.academia.edu/4437587/On_the_Polyphonic_Chant_of_Valaam_Monastery)
Chronicle of Valaam monastery
Archives of New Valaam, N 8337. The document dated 7th of June/20th of May of 1943.
Historical information about Valaam monastery is collected by monk Iuvian (Krasnoperov), 1880- 1957, librarian, archivist, historiographer of Valaam monastery.
Chronological order of events in the history of Valaam monastery Primary beginning of Valaam monastery, according to the legend, was in ancient times.
Then there is a period of loss of any information about Valaam.
More believable and credible is information that beginning of Valaam monastery took place in the first half of Х century. Such suppositions are based on texts of Life of Reverend Avraamiy Rostovskiy, which in certain editions include a detailed story about his life on Valaam.
Chronicles of Valaam monastery
– arrival of Reverend Avraamiy Rostovskiy to Valaam.
– finding of earthly remains of St. Sergy and German, Valaam wonder-workers. The fact of finding and transportation of earthly remains in 1163-1164 (in view of military danger) is proved with series of reliable chronicle sources from Novgorod.
In some sources the fact of transportation of earthly remains is proved with a reference on “Ancient chronicler”, containing this information.
– Swedish invasion to Karelia.
1179 – 1180
– the fourth and the last transportation of earthly remains of St. Sergy and German from Novgorod to Valaam.
Transported to the monastery, for some time the remains were on the place where now there stands Pokrovskaya chapel. A point of view that the transportation was in 1182 is more probable because it is proved with series of chronicle sources. Church historical science doesn’t prove the information that this transportation was the fourth. The source of information – text of “Opoved”.
– hegumen Martiry created a church of Jesus Christ on Valaam. This fact may be regarded as true because its source is “Ancient chronicler XIV c.”, which existence is proved with many chronicle sources. Reliability of this fact was assured by Father Ignaty (Bryanchaninov).
– Reverend Arseny Konevskiy lived on Valaam for some time. “Church service, Life and laudable word of Arseny Konevsky” compiled by Konevsky father superior Illarion and published in 1850. The text is based on Church legend and ancient lists unavailable now. Its existence was proved by the expedition made by Father Ignaty (Bryanchaninov) with the purpose of searching of ancient monuments in northern cloisters.
– arrival of Reverend Savvaty Soloversky on Valaam. This fact is proved by all Lifes of Reverend Savvaty Solovetsky.
– arrival of St. Alexander of the Svir on Valaam. This fact is proved by all Lifes of St. Alexander of the Svir.
– St. Alexander of the Svir was cut into the monkhood here.
– St. Paisy was exiled to Valaam because of slandering of church worker Philip.
1578, February, 20th
– the first beating of Valaam monks: 18 monks and 16 novices.
– plague on Valaam, 37 monks and 47 novices died.
– the second beating of Valaam monks; father superior Makary and brothers were killed; the monastery was burnt to the ground, all inhabitants went away and the island was deserted. The earthly remains of Reverends were kept in the rock under wraps.
1611 – 1715
– period of complete desolation of the cloister.
– the decree of Peter the 1st about restoration of Valaam monastery.
1719, 13th of March
– sanctification of the wooden temple of St. Sergy and German. Wooden buildings of the cloister were also sanctified.
1754, 3rd of April
– the first day of Easter, the temple and all buildings burnt to ashes by fire.
– the wooden monastery was rebuilt anew.
– beginning of building of a stone monastery, inner Nazaryevskiy section.
– charter of Valaam monastery was accepted. It was confirmed by St-Petersburg metropolitan Gavriil.
– building and sanctification of the stone church of Assumption of Our Lady; by this time Nazaryevskiy stone section had been built.
1793 , 4th of August
– the stone church of Saint Nikolay in internal section was sanctified.
With the building of a temple in Nikolskiy skete in honour of the same Saint Nikolay that church was abolished in 1853.
– a stone cathedral temple with a church-bell of God’s Transfiguration was built and sanctified in the monastery.
– the stone church of All Saints was built and sanctified in the skete of All Saints.
– ten Valaam missionaries and monk German, who lately was canonized (1970), were sent to Norhtern America.
– after rebuilding the Assumption church was sanctified again.
– staff of the monastery was increased up to 30 monks.
1799 , 28th of June
– in the monastery cathedral temple another church of St. Sergy and German was sanctified.
– a 257 pood bell was casted for the cathedral temple.
1809, 27th of June
– the stone church of saint Apostles Peter and Pavel was sanctified on the sacred gates of the cloister.
– staff of monastery was increased up to 50 monks.
1814 , 30th of June
– the church of Life-Giving Source of Our Lady was sanctified in the section of brotherly hospital.
– building of the whole outer monastery section ended.
1819, 10th of August
Emperor Alexander 1 visited Valaam monastery.
1819 , 20th of October
– Russian Holy Synod decreed: to insert the names of St. Sergy and German into all church books.
– Emperor Alexander 1 granted a set of chasubles made of golden brocade and a precious cross with embellishment for successive wearing by deans of the monastery.
– Valaam monastery was certified as a first class one with salary from the State.
– 550, 155 and 82 pood bells were casted on Valaam.
– a silver shrine for St Sergy and German was constructed.
1837, 17th of June
– the church of Saint Trinity was sanctified in the hospital section.
– eight stone brothers sections and the fence around the skete were constructed in the skete of All Saints. During the war in 1939-1940 these sections were hardly damaged.
1849 , 18th of August
– after repair the low church of All Saints was sanctified in the skete of All Saints.
1850 , 18th of July
– the upper temple of Heavenly Incorporeal Powers was sanctified in the skete of All Saints.
– a big stone hotel for piligrims and newcomers was built in the monastery. Lately it was enlarged and built on in 1874 and 1899.
1853 , 23rd of July
– the stone temple of Nikolay wonder worker was sanctified in Nikolskiy skete.
Chronicle of Valaam monastery
1855 , 30th of January
– the wooden temple of St. Alexander of the Svir was sanctified in Svyatoostrovsky skete.
– a wooden house for hegumens was built and a well was dug on Predtechny island.
– Finnish stone hotel was built. It was blowed up and destroyed during the war in 1939-1940.
– the ancient church, which was built in Vasilyevskiy village cemetery by Valaam monks who lived there, was transported from Staraya Ladoga to Valaam (to the island of Saint John the Precursor).
1858 , 15th of June
– the temple of St. Sergy and German was sanctified in the low church.
1858 , 20th of June
– the upper wooden temple of Saint Precursor and Baptist John was sanctified in the skete of St. John the Precursor.
1858 , 28th of June
– Emperor Alexander 2 with his family visited the monastery. In honour of this event the chapel called “Tsarskaya” was erected in the monastery.
– a stone house for brotherhood of the skete was built with a house church of Reverend Ioann Damaskin within it. It was sanctified in 1865.
– the footstock for observing of water level in Ladoga was carved out in the rock in the main monastery bay.
1859 , 1st of January
– beginning of daily observations of swaying of water in Ladoga lake. They were continued by the monastery brotherhood for 81 years, till the 1st of December, 1939.
1860 , 30th of January
– the temple of Three Ecumenical Baptists was sanctified in the skete of St. John the Precursor.
– a stone building of indoor plumbing and metalworking shops were built and equipped. The building was burnt to ashes and destroyed during the war in 1939-1940 and indoor plumbing system was damaged.
– the wooden temple of God’s Prophet Ilya was sanctified in Ilyinsky skete.
1870 , 25th of September
– the wooden temple of the Konevskaya icon of Our Lady was sanctified in Konevsky skete.
– a stone house for workers with stables and a hayloft was built i n the cloister. The building was partly damaged in the years of the war (1939-1940).
1873 , 9th of October
– the wooden church of Reverend Avraamy was sanctified in the skete of Avraam of Rostov. The temple was dismantled and abolished in 1920.
– the big Andreyevsky 1000 pood bell was casted in St-Petersburg for the cathedral temple of the monastery. It was broken in the war of 1939-1940.
1876 , 12th September
– the stone cemetery church of Saint Fathers was sanctified in Nazaryevskaya wasteland.
– stone granite ladder of 62 steps was attached to the pier and a cast-iron grating with granite posts was settled on the shore of the main ground in front of the saint gates.
– beginning of burial of the deceased deans of the monastery, novices and piligrims in Nazaryevskaya wasteland. A dean, father superior Damaskin was the first buried.
– a stone building of the monastery farm with a cowshed was built.
– a stone barn for food and tools was built in the cloister. It was blowed up during the war of 1939-1940.
– the stone internal section for hospital and sacristy was made taller. It burnt with the church of Holy Trinity during the war and the low church of Life-Giving Source was hardly damaged.
1884 , 18th of August
– a new building of the monastery library was opened and all books were collected there. The placement of the sacristy above the library was burnt during the war, but the library survived because it had stone archs in the ceiling.
– two factories were built: stone – resin and wood – leather; two kilns for lime were settled near. The wood – leather factory was burnt during the war in 1939-1940.
1886 – 1887
– two stone docks were equipped in the main monastery bay. During the war of 1939-1940 the docks were damaged and all wooden parts were burnt.
– renewal of the old monastery cathedral which was built in 1794. Instead building of a new, larger and more majestic cathedral was built. Building ended with inside decoration in 1892.
1892 , 26th of June
– the new monastery cathedral of St. Sergy and German was sanctified.
1893, 14th of June
– a side part of the temple of Annunciation of Our Lady was sanctified.
1896 , 19th of June
– the upper cathedral temple of Transfiguration.
1899 , 18th of July
– the stone temple of St. Sergy was sanctified i n the skete of St. Sergy.
1899 , 27th of July
– the stone temple of the Tihvin icon of Our Lady was sanctified on Tihvinskiy island. It was blowed up and burnt in the war of 1939-1940.
1900 , 8th of July
– the stone church of equally apostles saints Konstantin and Elena was sanctified on Germanov Field on Valaam.
1901 , 18th and 21st of October
– the two-throne temple of Valaam yard was sanctified in Moscow. The building of the yard was commandeered by the Soviet government in 1925 and brotherhood of the cloister was dispersed.
– the stone temple in honour of St. German was sanctified in the skete of St.German.
1906 , 30th of July and 29th of October
– two temples were sanctified: the upper and the low of the stone church of the Resurrection skete.
– an upper floor for a new hospital of the outer monastery section was built on. The placements of the new hospital, drugstore, waiting room, separate rooms were burnt in the war of 1939-1940.
– the wooden temple of the Gethsemane skete and the wooden chapel were sanctified on the Eleon mountain.
– since the first year of World War 1 more than 600 monks had been drafted, reduction of the monastery brotherhood began and it caused gradual closing of the sketes. Only two of them weren’t closed: of All Saints and of St. John the Precursor.
1917 , 24th of June
– the stone church of the Smolensk icon of Our Lady was sanctified in Smolenskiy skete, in memory of orthodox warriors who died in World War 1.
– intense fall of water level in Ladoga lake.
– unusual increase of water level in Ladoga lake which was a disaster. The difference of water levels in the lake between 1921 and 1924 was 9.5 foots.
1939 , 1/14th of January
– on that day was a celebration of 80 years of continuing observation of water level in the lake. There was a memorable coincidence: the first date of monastery observations, on the 1st of January in 1859, was fully identified with the other date 80 years after with the same atmospheric conditions, on the 1st of January in 1939. T his outstanding and rare phenomenon in the history of Valaam water level observations make us render glory and thanksgiving to the Lord, swaying over seas of the Universe for His help in scientific observations. In this connection Finnish Oceanographic Institute wrote to Valaam (12th of January, 1939; N 477): “We greet Valaam monastery for its long valuable observation work. 80-year observations are the huge scientific achievement especially because they were always conducted very thoroughly”.
1939, 4/17th of October
– Ladoga’s water level inclined to the limit point of monastery observations: 0.00 mm.
1939, 20th of November/3rd of December
– beginning of air attacks and bombing of Valaam.
1939 , 7/20th of December
– beginning of evacuation of the monastery brotherhood to Finland because of danger. That date the first bunch of monks were gone.
1939 , 15/28th of December
– the second bunch of monks went away from the monastery by order of military superintendent.
1940 , 23rd of January/5th of February
– intense bombing of Valaam not only military objects, but also its buildings: machine house and sawing warehouses. Bombs fell near the cathedral, all the windows broke and life in the monastery became unbearable. In view of it military superintendent suggested inhabitants to move away from Valaam with a help of trucks.
1940 , 24th of January/6th of February
– all monastery inhabitants leading by the Father Superior Khariton had to leave the island and move into the depths of Finland.
1940 , 6/19th of March
– the island of Valaam with all its sacred objects, sketes, temples, real estate, forests and fields was given to USSR by the government and the high military command of Finland.
1941 , 6/19th of September
– the island of Valaam with its real estate, temples and sketes returned to Finland again.
1941 , 27th of October/9th of November
– all inhabitants of the monastery were gathered on the New Valaam, in Papiniiyemi estate, in Finland.
1941 , 9/22nd of November
– six monks went to the Old Valaam for taking part in restoration works.
– the island of Valaam was given to USSR again and the last monks left the cloister.
– resumption of monk life on the Old Valaam.
1989 , 3/6th of October
– the report of mitropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod Alexy about giving a part of the monastery to Leningrad diocese was listened to on the session of Holy Synod leading by Holy Patriarch Pimen. They decided to thank God for resumption of monk life on the island of Valaam.
1989 , 30th of November/13th of December
– the first monks stepped on the island for rebirth of the monastery on the day of memory of saint apostle Andrey the First-Called.
– metropolitan of Leningrad and Novgorod Alexy sanctified the main throne of the low cathedral temple of St. Sergy and German, Valaam wonder-workers. It was made on the date of the Ascension of Jesus Christ.
– Valaam monastery got a new statue.
1996 , 8/21st of July
– the Valaam icon of Godmother was transported to the monastery from St- Petersburg under blessing of Holy Patriarch Alexy II. (the copy of the icon made by Valaam monks in 1902).
1996 , 9-12/22-25th of July
– Holy Patriarch Alexy II visited the monastery. He sanctified the new- built shrine above the earthly remains of St. Sergy and German, who reposed under wraps, and also the iconostasis of the low cathedral temple. In the present times two sketes: of All Saints and Nikolsky. The sketes of St. John the Precursor and Gethsemane were resumed.
Efrem – since 1754 till 1781 (27 years)
Nazary – since 1781 till 1801. (20 years)
Innokenty – since 1801 till 1823 (22 years)
Ionafan 1 – since 1823 till 1830 (7 years)
Varlaam – since 1830 till 1833 (3 years)
Veniamin – since 1833 till 1839 (6 years)
Damaskin – since 1839 till 1881 (42 years)
Ionafan II – since 1881 till 1891 (10 years)
Gavriil – since 1891 till 1903 (12 years)
Vitaly – since 1903 till 1905 (2 years)
Pafnuty – since 1905 till 1907 (2 years)
Mavriky – since 1907 till 1918 (11 years)
Pavlin – since 1918 till 1933 (15 years)
Khariton – since 1933 till 1947 (14 years)-Foundation of the New Valaam, Papiniiyemi, Finland in 1941.
Iyeronim – since 1948 till 1952 (4 years)
Nestor – since 1952 till 1967 (15 years)
Simforian – since 1967 till 1979 (12 years)
Panteleimon – since 1980 till 1996 (16 tears)
Sergy – since 1997
Renewal of the man’s monastery of Transfiguration on Valaam.
Victor – since 1989 till 1990 (1 year) (now Podolsky bishop)
Andronic – since 1990 till 1993 (3 years)
Pankraty – since 1993
MEMORABLE DATES OF VALAAM CLOISTER
550 years ago, in 1448, St. Alexander of the Svir arrived to Valaam.
20th of February/5th of March, 1578 – the day of tortureous death of 18 oldmen and 16 novices who were killed by Swedes: priest Tit, monk Tikhon, monastery worker Gelasy, monks – Varlaam, Sergy, Savva, Konon, Silvester, Kiprian, Pimen, John, Simon, Afanasy, Serapion, Varlaam and novices – Afanasy, Antony, Luca, Foma, Dionisy, Philip, Ignaty, Vasily, Pakhomy, Vasily, John, Feodor and John.
Cathedral funeral service takes place on that day.
The days of memory of the outstanding workers of Valaam cloister
23rd of February/8th of March 1809 – death of hegumen Nazary.
23rd of January/5th of February 1881 – death of hegumen Damaskin.
22nd of May/4th of June 1816 – death of hieromonk Kleopa.
6/19th of August 1822 – death of hieromonk Nikon the caveman.
6/19th of January 1823 – death of Nicolay the hermit.
7/20th of April 1822 – death of monk Feodor.
Cathedral funeral service takes also place on these days.
Patron saint’s days of the cloister
The main patron saint’s day, i n the summer cathedral, on the day of Transfiguration of the Saviour, 6/19th of August.
In the temple of St. Sergy and German: the first – on the day of their memory, 28th of June/11th of July, and the second – on the day of transportation of their earthly remains, 11th of September/24th of September, and in the attachment of Annunciation of Our Lady, 25th of March/7th of April.
In the dining church, on the day of the Assumption of Our Lady, 15/28th of August.
In the temple of apostles Peter and Paul, 29th of June/12th of July.
In the skete of All Saints in the upper church: on the day of celebration of the cathedral of St. Archistratig Michael and other incorporeal powers, 8th of November, and on the day of celebration of the cathedral of Gavriil the archangel, 13th of July; in the low church: on the week of All Saints, on the eighth Sunday during the Easter.
In Svyatoostrovsky skete on the day of memory of St. Alexander of the Svir, 30th of August/12th of September.
In the skete of St. John the Precursor in the upper church: on the day of birth of St. John the baptist, on 24th of June/7th of July, and on the day of his decapitation, 29th of August/1st of September; and in the low – on the day of Three Saints, 30th of January/12th of February.
In Nikolsky skete – on the day of memory of the Saint, 6/19th of December, and on the day of transportation of his sacred remains, 9/22nd of May. In the church of all Fathers who shone in times of fast and feat, which is located near the new cemetery, on the day of their memory – on cheese Saturday.
Only eight of twenty chapels has been kept in the monastery
1) The chapel of glorification of our Lord’s sufferings which is situated near the skete of All Saints.
2) The chapel of the Ascension of the Saviour, on the Eleon mountain.
3) The chapel of the icon of the cover of Our Lady.
4) The chapel of the icon of Annunciation of Our Lady.
5) The chapel of the Vladimir icon of Our Lady.
6) The chapel of the icon of Our Lady called “the Sign”.
7) The chapel of the icon of Our Lady called “the joy of all the mournful”.
8) The chapel of the Smolensk icon of Our Lady.
In all the chapels and near the crosses hymns with water-christening take place on the days of celebration.
The following religious processions were established in the cloister
1) 1/14th of August – a religious procession to the water. It moves from the Monastery mountain to the place in the Monastery bay. The procession was established according to the common church rank for consecration of water.
2) 28th of June/11th of July – a religious procession around the monastery on the day of memory of St. Sergy and German, Valaam wonder-workers (earlier on the day of St. Apostles Peter and Paul).
3) On the week of All Saints. On that day the church celebration takes place in the low church in the skete of All Saints. The procession walks from the cathedral monastery temple to the skete.
4) 6/19th of May – a religious procession by water from the Monastery bay to Nikolsky skete on the day of transportation of earthly remains of St. Nikolay wonder-worker. Established in 1994.
Bibliography on Eastern Orthodox Mysticism and Spirituality
I. Introduction: Some Standard Works on Eastern Spirituality
Louis Bouyer, A History of Christian Spirituality, Vol. I: The Spirituality of the New Testament and the Fathers, and III: Orthodox Spirituality and Protestant and Anglican Spirituality, tr. M. P. Ryan (2nd printing, NY:1982).
Olivier Clément, The Roots of Christian Mysticism: Text and Commentary, tr. T. Berkeley (NY:1995).
Lev Gillet (A Monk of the Eastern Church), Orthodox Spirituality: An Outline of the Orthodox Ascetical and Mystical Tradition, 2nd ed., reprint (London:1980)
Irenée Hausherr, “Les grands courants de la spiritualité orientale”, Orientalia christiana periodica1 (1935) 114-138.
Bernard McGinn, John Meyendorff, Jean Leclercq, Jill Rait, Louis Dupres, Don Saliers, editors, Christian Spirituality, three volumes: Origins to the Twelfth Century; High Middle Ages and Reformation, and Post-Reformation and Modern (NY:1989, 1987, 1991, resp). [Articles pertaining to Eastern spirituality are included in each volume.]
Michael Prokurat, Alexander Golitzin, and Michael Peterson, Historical Dictionary of the Orthodox Church (Lanham, MD/London:1996) [includes brief definitions of key terms and sketches of central persons and places]
Archimandrite Sophrony, On Prayer, tr. Rosemary Edmonds (NY:1998)
Tomaš Špidlik, The Spirituality of the Christian East, tr. Anthony Gythiel (Kalamazoo:1986) [quite the best single handbook available, comprehensive analysis of terms and ideas,excellent bibliography, if now a little dated]
Archimandrite Hierotheos Vlachos, Orthodox Psychotherapy: The Science of the Fathers, tr.Esther Williams (Levadia, Greece:1994)
Bishop Kallistos Ware, The Orthodox Way (Crestwood, NY:rev. ed. 1998)
II. Scripture, Asceticism/Mysticism, Jewish Apocalyptic, and Early Christianity
A. Source Texts
Bible with Deuterocanonical Books
R. Cameron and A. J. Daley, ed., The Cologne Mani Codex (P.Colon.inv.ab 4780): “Concerning
the Origin of his Body, SBL Texts and Translations 15 (Missoula, MT:1979).
Clement of Alexandria, see Henry Chadwick, tr. and ed., Alexandrian Christianity (Philadelphia:1954), 15-164.
James H. Charlesworth, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2 volumes (NY:1983)
F. H. Colson and G. H. Whitaker, tr., Philo, The Loeb Classical Library, 10 volumes.
J. B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers (rep., Grand Rapids:1980) [archaizing translation, but
useful for its collection, including Ignatius, the Martyrdom of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, etc.].
Origen of Alexandria, Origen: An Exhortation to Martyrdom, Prayer, and Selected Works, tr. and introduction, Rowan A. Greer (NY:1979).
James R. Robinson, general ed., The Nag Hammadi Library (2nd ed. revised, San Francisco:1990).
Wilhelm Schneemelcher, ed., New Testament Apocrypha, tr. R. McL. Wilson (2nd ed., revised, Cambridge/Louisville:1990/91), two volumes.
Geza Vermes, tr. and ed., The Dead Sea Scrolls in English, 3rd revised and augmented ed. (Peguin Books, 1990).
Vincent L. Wimbush, ed., Ascetic Behavior in Greco-Roman Antiquity: A Sourcebook (Minneapolis:1990)
B. Selected Studies
Antonio Acerbi, L’Ascensione di Isaia: Christologia e profetismo in Siria nei primi decenni del II Secolo (Milan:1989)
Gary Anderson, “Celibacy or Consummation in the Garden? Reflections on Early Jewish and Christian Interpretation of the Garden of Eden”, Harvard Theological Review 82.2 (1989) 121-148.
Rudolf Arbesmann, “Fasting and Prophecy in Pagan and Christian Antiquity”, Traditio 7 (1949/51) 1-71
Joseph Baumgarten, “The Book of Elchesai and Merkabah Mysticism”, Journal for the Study of Judaism 17.2 (1986) 212-223.
———————–, “The Qumran Sabbath Shirot and the Rabbinic Tradition”, Revue de Qumran 13 (1988) 199-213.
Sebastian P. Brock, “Clothing Metaphors as a Means of Theological Expression in Syriac Tradition”, in Typus, Symbol, Allegorie bei den östlichen Vätern und ihren Parallelen im Mittelalter, ed. Margo Schmidt and C. F. Geyer (Regensburg:1982) 11-38
James H. Charlesworth, ed., Jesus and the Dead Sea Scrolls (NY:1992)
Ira Chernus, Mysticism in Rabbinic Judaism: Studies in the History of Midrash (Berlin/NY: 1982)
R. E. Clements, God and the Temple (Philadelphia:1965)
John J. Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Matrix of Christianity (NY:1984).
—————– and Michael Fishbane, editors, Death, Ecstasy, and Otherworldly Journeys (Albany:1995)
Stephen L. Cross, Prophecy and Apocalypticism: The Post-Exilic Social Setting (Minneapolis:1995).
Henri Crouzel, Origène et la conaissance mystique (Toulouse:1961)
—————-, “Origène, précurseur du monachisme”, Théologie de la vie monastique (Paris:1961) 15-58
Jean Daniélou, The Theology of Jewish Christianity, tr. J. A. Baker (London/Philadelphia:1964)
April DeConick, Seek to See Him: Ascent and Vision Mysticism in the Gospel of Thomas (Leiden:1996)
J. A. Fitzmeyer, “Glory Reflected in the Face of Christ (2 Cor 3:7-4:6) and a Palestinian Jewish Motif”, Theological Studies 42 (1981) 630-644.
Jarl Fossum, The Image of the Invisible God: Essays on the Influence of Jewish Mysticism on
Early Christology (Freiburg/Göttingen:1995)
Steven D. Fraade, “Ascetical Aspects of Ancient Judaism”, Jewish Spirituality I:253-288.
W. H. C. Frend, Martyrdom and Persecution in the Early Church (Garden City, NY:1967)
Arthur Green, ed., Jewish Spirituality, vol. I:From the Bible through the Middle Ages (NY:1988)
Ithmar Gruenwald, Apocalyptic and Merkabah Mysticism (Leiden:1980)
———————, “Manicheanism and Judaism in Light of the Cologne Mani Codex”, Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphie 50 (1983) 29-45
Antoine Guillaumont, Aux origines du monachisme chrétien (Bellefontaine:1979) [several valuable essays on the Jewish background to Christian monasticism]
David Halperin, Faces of the Chariot: Early Jewish Responses to Ezekiel’s Vison (Tübingen: 1988)
Richard A. Horsely with John S. Hanson, Bandits, Prophets, and Messiahs: Popular Movements at the Time of Jesus (San Francisco:1985)
Moshe Idel, “Enoch is Metatron”, Immanuel 24/25 (1990) 220-240
Werner Jaeger, Early Christianity and Greek Paideia (Cambridge, MA:1962)
Reuven Kimmelman, “Rabbi Yohanan and Origen on the Song of Songs: A Third Century Jewish-Christian Disputation”, Harvard Theological Review 73.3-4 (1980) 567-595.
R. A. Kraft, “The Pseudepigrapha in Christianity”, in John C. Reeves, ed., Tracing the Threads:
Studies in the Vitality of Jewish Pseudepigrapha (Atlanta:1994) 55-86
Georg Kretschmar, “Ein Beitrag zur Frage nach dem Ursprung frühchristlicher Askese”, Zeitschrift für Theologie und Kirche 64 (1961) 27-67.
———————-, Studien zur frühchristlichen Trinitätstheologie (Tübingen:1956)
Jon Levenson, “The Jerusalem Temple in Devotional and Visionary Experience”, Jewish Spirituality I:32-61.
Wayne A. Meeks, The Prophet King: Moses Traditions and Johannine Christology (Leiden:1967)
Tryggve N. D. Mettinger, The Dethronement of Sabaoth: Studies in the Shem and Kabod Theologies (Lund:1982)
Françoise Morard, “Monachos, Moine. Histoire du terme jusqu’au IVe siècle”, Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie 20 (1973) 332-411
C. R. A. Morray-Jones, “Paradise Revisited (2 Cor 12:1-12): The Jewish Mystical Background of Paul’s Apostolate”, Harvard Theological Review 86 (1993) 177-217 and 265-292
—————————, “Transformational Mysticism in the Apocalyptic-Merkabah Tradition”, Journal of Jewish Studies 43 (1992) 1-31
A. A. Moses, Matthew’s Transfiguration Story and Jewish-Christian Controversy (Sheffield:1996)
Domingo Muñoz-Leon, Gloria de la Shekina en los Targumim del Penteteuco (Madrid:1977)
Robert Murray, “Disaffected Judaism and Early Christianity: Some Predisposing Factors”, in To See Us as Others See Us (Chico:1985) 263-281.
——————, “An Exhortation to Candidates for Ascetical Vows at Baptism in the Ancient Syrian Church”, New Testament Studies 21 (1974) 59-80
Peter Nagel, Die Motivierung der Askese in der alten Kirche und der Ursprung des Mönchtums (Berlin:1966)
Carey C. Newman, Paul’s Glory Christology: Tradition and Rhetoric (Leiden/NY:1992)
George W. Nickelsberg and John J. Collins, editors, Ideal Figures in Ancient Judaism (Chico:1980)
Martha C. Nussbaum, Therapy and Desire: Theory and Practice in Hellenistic Ethics (Princeton:1994)
Gilles Quispel, “Ezekiel 1:26 in Jewish Mysticism”, Vigiliae christianae 34 (1980) 1-13
—————-, “The Asclepius: From the Hermetic Lodge in Alexandria to the Greek Eucharist and the Roman Mass”, in R. van den Broek and J. Hauegraf, editors, Gnosis and Hermetism from Antiquity to Modern Times (Albany:1998) 69-78
—————-, “The Study of Encratism: A Historical Survey”, La Tradizione dell’Enkrateia,
ed. Hugo Bianci (Rome:1985) 35-81
Michael Ramsey, The Glory of God and the Transfiguration of Christ (London:1949, rep.1967)
Aline Rousselle, Porneia: On Desire and the Body in Late Antiquity, tr. Felicia Pheasant
Christopher Rowland, The Open Heaven: A Study of Apocalyptic in Judaism and Early Christianity (NY:1982)
Gershom Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and the Talmudic Tradition (NY:1960)
Alan Segal, Paul the Convert: Apostolate and Apostasy of Saul the Pharisee (New Haven:1990)
Wilhelm F. Smelik, “On the Mystical Tranformation of the Righteous into Light in Judaism”, Journal for the Study of Judaism 27.2 (1995) 122-144
Mark S. Smith, “‘Seeing God’ in the Psalms: The Background to the Beatific Vision in the Bible”,
Catholic Biblical Quarterly 50 (1988) 171-183
Morton Smith, “Observations on Hekalot Rabbati“, in Biblical and Other Studies, ed. A. Altman
(Cambridge MA:1963) 142-160
Guy G. Stroumsa, “Form(s) of God: Some Notes on Metatron and Christ”, Harvard Theological Review 76.3 (1983) 269-288
———————, Hidden Wisdom: Esoteric Traditions and the Roots of Christian Mysticism (Leiden:1996)
James Tabor, Things Unutterable: Paul’s Ascent to Heaven in its Greco-Roman, Judaic, and Early Christian Contexts (Lanham, MD:1986)
Jean Marcel Vincent, “Aspekte der Begegnung mit Gott im alten Testament: Die Erfahrung der göttlichen Gegenwart im Schauen Gottes”, Revue biblique 103 (1996) 5-39
Moshe Weinfeld, Kabod, in Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, ed. E. J. Botterwick, tr. D. E. Green (Grand Rapids:1995) vol. VII:22-38
III. The Fourth Century: The Imperial Church and the Emergence of Monasticism
A. Source Texts
Ammonas, The Letters of Ammonas, tr. Derwas Chitty, rev. tr. Sebastian Brock (Fairacres, Oxford:1983)
Anthony, The Letters of St. Antony: Monasticism and the Making of a Saint, ed. and tr. Samuel Rubensen (Minneapolis:1995)
Aphrahat, The Liber Graduum, and other early Syriac Fathers, selections in The Syriac Fathers
on Prayer and the Spiritual Life, tr. Sebastian Brock (Kalamazoo:1987)
Athanasius, The Life of Anthony and the Letter to Marcellinus, tr. Robert C. Gregg (NY:1980)
Basil the Great, The Ascetical Works, tr. Monica Wagner, Fathers of the Church 9 (Wash. D.C., 1950)
—————–, On the Holy Spirit, tr. David Anderson (Crestwood, NY:1980)
Cyril of Jerusalem, John Chrysostom, Theodore of Mopsuestia, mystagogical catecheses in Edward Yarnold, tr. and ed., The Awe-Inspiring Rites of Initiation: Baptismal Homilies of the Fourth Century (Slough, UK:1972)
Ephrem, Ephrem the Syrian: Hymns, tr. Kathleen McVey (NY:1989)
———, The Hymns on Paradise, tr. Sebastian Brock (Crestwood, NY:1990)
Evagrius of Pontus, The Praktikos and Chapters on Prayer, tr. John E. Bamberger (Spencer, MA:1970)
———————-, Les six centuries des Kephalaia Gnostica d’Évagre le Pontique, ed. and tr.
Antoine Guillaumont, Patrologia Orientalis 28
Gregory of Nyssa, From Glory to Glory: Selected Texts on the Spiritual Life, ed. Jean Daniélou,
tr. N. Musurillo (NY:1961).
Macarius, Pseudo-Macarius: The Fifty Spiritual Homilies and the Great Letter, tr. George
Pachomius, Pachomian Koinonia, ed. and tr. Armand Veilleux, three volumes (Kalamazoo:1980-1982)
Palladius, The Lausiac History, tr. Robert T. Meyer, Ancient Christian Writers 34 (NY:1964)
The Desert Christian: Sayings of the Fathers, the Alphabetical Collection, tr. Benedicta Ward (NY:198
The Lives of the Desert Fathers (=Historia Monachorum in Aegypto), tr. Norman Russell (Kalamazoo:1981)
Theodoret of Cyrrhus, History of the Monks of Syria, tr. E. M. Price (Kalamazoo:1985)
B. Selected Studies
David Amand de Mendieta, L’ascèse monastique de Saint Basile: Essai historique (Maredsous:1948)
Hans-Veit Beyer, “Die Lichtlehre der Mönche des vierzehnten und des vierten Jahrhunderts erörtet am Beispiel des Gregorios Sinaïtes, des Evagrios Pontikos, und des Pseudo-Makarios/Symeon”, Jahrbuch des österreichischen Byzantinistik 31.1 (1981) 473-512
Wilhelm Bousset, Apophthegmata: Studien zur Geshichte des ältesten Mönchtums (Tübingen:1923)
David Brakke, Athanasius and the Politics of Asceticism (Oxford:1995)
Sebastian Brock, “Fire from Heaven: From Abel’s Sacrifice to the Eucharist. A Theme in Syrian Christianity”, Studia Patristica 25, 229-243
——————-, “Prayer of the Heart in the Syrian Perspective”, Sobornost 4.2 (1982) 131-142
——————-, Spirituality in the Syriac Tradition (Kottayam, India: 1987)
——————-, The Holy Spirit in the Syrian Baptismal Tradition (Poona, India:1979)
——————-, The Luminous Eye: The Spiritual Worldview of St. Ephrem the Syrian, rev. ed. (Kalamazoo:1992)
Peter Brown, Society and the Holy in Late Antiquity (Berkeley:1982)
—————, The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (Berkeley:1988)
Gabriel Bunge, “Évagre le pontique et les deux Macaires”, Irénikon 56.2-3 (1983) 215-227 and 323-360
—————–, Geistliche Vaterschaft: Christliche Gnosis bei Evagrios Pontikos (Regensburg:1988)
Mark S. Burrows, “On the Visibility of God in the Holy Man: A Reconsideration of the Role of the Apa in the Pachomian Vitae“, Vigiliae christianae 41 (1987) 11-33
Douglas Burton-Christie, The Word in the Desert: Scripture and the Quest for Holiness in Early Christian Monasticism (NY/Oxford:1993)
Irenée-Henri Dalmais, “La vie monastique comme ascèse vigiale d’après Saint Ephrem et les traditions liturgiques syriennes”, Ephemerides liturgicae 48 (1989) 75-86
————————-, Eastern Liturgies, tr. Donald Attwater (NY:1960)
Jean Daniélou, Platonisme et théologie mystique. Doctrine spirituelle de Grégoire de Nysse (Paris:1944)
Herman Dörries, Theologie des Makarios/Symeon (Göttingen:1978)
——————-, “The Place of Confession in Ancient Monasticism”, Studia Patristica 5 (1962) 284-311
Jeremy Driscoll, The Ad Monachos of Evagrius Ponticus (Rome:1991)
Francis Dvornik, Early Christian and Byzantine Political Philosophy: Origins and Background Dumbarton Oaks Studies IX, 2 volumes (Washington DC:1966)
Phillipe Escalon, Monachisme et l’Église: Le monachisme syrien du IVe au VIIe siècle, un monachisme charismatique (Paris:1999)
Hugh Evelyn-White, Monasteries of the Wadi Natrun. II: History of the Monasteries of Nitria and Scete (NY:1932, rep. 1973)
Thomas Fisch, ed., Liturgy and Tradition: Theological Reflections of Alexander Schmemann (NY:1990)
Klaus Fitschen, Messalianismus und Antimessalianismus: Ein Beispiel ostkirchlicher Ketzergeschichte (Göttingen:1998)
Georges Florovsky, Byzantine Ascetic and Spiritual Writers (Belmont, MA:1987)
James E. Goehring, “Monastic Diversity and Ideological Boundaries in Fourth Century Christian Egypt”, Journal of Early Christian Studies 5.1 (1997) 61-84
———————-, “The Encroaching Desert: Literary Production and Ascetic Space in Early Christian Egypt”, Journal of Early Christian Studies 1 (1993) 281-296
Alexander Golitzin, “Liturgy and Mysticism: The Experience of God in Eastern Orthodox Christianity”, Pro Ecclesia 8.2 (1999) 31-58
Graham Gould, The Desert Fathers on Monastic Community (Oxford:1993)
J. Gribomont, “Le monachisme au sein de l’église en Syrie et en Cappadoce”, Studia Monastica 7 (1965) 7-24
Sidney Griffith, “Monks, ‘Singles’, and ‘Sons of the Covenant’: Reflections on Syriac Ascetic Terminology”, in Eulogema: Studies in Honor of Robert Taft, SJ (Rome:1993) 141-160
Antoine Guillaumont, “La vision de l’intellect par lui-même dans la mystique évagrienne”, Mélanges de l’Université St. Joseph 50.1-2 (1984) 255-262
————————-, Les Kephalaia Gnostica d’Évagre le Pontique (Paris:1961)
————————-, “Situation et significance du Liber Graduum dans la spiritualité syriaque”, Orientalia Christiana Analecta 197 (Rome:1974) 311-325
Susan A. Harvey, “The Edessan Martyrs and Ascetic Tradition”, Orientalia Christiana Analecta (Rome:1990) 195-206.
Irenée Hausherr, Spiritual Direction in the Early Christian East, tr. Anthony Gythiel (Kalamazoo:1990)
Karl Heussi, Der Ursprung des Mönchtums (Tübingen:1936)
Endre von Ivanka, Rhomäerreich und Gottesvolk (Freiburg/Munich:1968)
Casimir Kucharek, The Sacramental Mysteries: A Byzantine Approach (Combermere, Ontario:1976)
Fairy von Lilienfeld, “Anthropos Pneumatikos-Pater Pneumatikos: Neues Testament und Apophthegmata Patrum”, Studia Patristica 5 (1962) 382-392
Andrew Louth, The Origins of the Christian Mystical Tradition: From Plato to Denys (Oxford:1981, rep. 1992)
Harriet Luckman and Linda Kunzler, editors, Purity of Heart in Early Ascetic and Monastic Literature (Collegeville, MN:1999)
John A. McGuckin, The Transfiguration of Christ in Scripture and in Tradition (Lewistown/Queenstown:1986)
———————-, “‘Perceiving Light from Light by Light’: The Trinitarian Theology of St. Gregory the Theologian”, Greek Orthodox Theological Review 39.1 (1994) 7-32
Anthony Meredith, “Asceticism: Christian and Greek”, Journal of Theological Studies ns 27.2 (1976) 313-332
Charles A. Metter, “‘Mary Needs Martha’: The Purposes of Manual Labor in Early Egyptian Monasticism”, St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 43.2 (1999) 163-207.
Robert Murray, Symbols of Church and Kingdom: A Study in Early Syriac Tradition (Cambridge:1975)
G. P. Nedungatt, “The Covenanters of the Early Syriac-Speaking Church”, Orientalia ChristianaPeriodica 39 (1973) 191-215 and 419-444
Gilles Quispel, Makarios, das Thomasevangelium, and das Lied von der Perle (Leiden:1967)
Juana Raasch, The Monastic Concept of Purity of Heart and Its Sources, in Studia Monastica 8.1 (1966) 7-33; 8.2, 183-213; 10.1 (1968) 7-55; 11.2 (1969) 269-314; and 12.1 (1970) 7-41
Richard Reitzenstein, Historia Monachorum et Historia Lausiaca: Eine Studie zur Geschichte des Mönchtums und der frühchristlichen Begriffe Gnostiker und Pneumatiker (Göttingen:1916)
Phillip Rousseau, Ascetics, Authority, and the Church (Oxford:1978)
——————-, Basil of Ceasarea (Berkeley:1994)
——————-, Pachomius: The Making of a Community in Fourth Century Egypt (Berkeley:1985)
William Schoedel, “Jewish Wisdom and the Formation of the Christian Ascetic”, in R. L. Wilken, ed., Aspects of Wisdom in Judaism and Early Christianity (Notre Dame: 1975) 169-199
Hans-Joachim Schultz, The Byzantine Liturgy, tr. M. J. O’Donnell (NY:1986)
Nicholas Séd, “Les Hymnes sur le paradis de Saint Ephrem et les traditions juives”, Le muséon (1968) 455-501
—————, “La shekinta et ses amis araméens”, Cahiers d’Orientalisme XX (1988) 233-242
Guy G. Stroumsa, “Ascèse et gnôse: Aux origines de la spiritualité monastique”, Revue Thomiste 89 (1981) 557-573
Nicholas Uspensky, Evening Worship in the Orthodox Church, tr. Paul Lazor (Crestwood, NY:1985).
Arthur Vööbus, History of Asceticism in the Syrian Orient, 2 volumes (Louvain:1958, 1960)
Hugh Wybrew, The Orthodox Liturgy: The Development of the Eucharistic Liturgy in the Byzantine Rite (Crestwood, NY:1989)
IV. Fifth Century to the Present: Icons, Hesychasts and the Jesus Prayer
A. Source Texts, Part I: Byzantine era
Barsanuphius and John: Questions and Answers, ed. and tr. Derwas Chitty, Patrologia Orientalis 31:449-661 [124 of over 800 extant letters, early sixth century]
Nicholas Cabasilas, Commentary on the Divine Liturgy, tr. J. M. Hussey and P. A. McNulty (London:1966)
———————-, The Life in Christ, tr. Carmino J. de Catenzaro (Crestwood, NY:1974).
Cyril of Scythopolis, The Lives of the Monks of Palestine, tr. R. M. Price, annotations by John Binns (Kalamazoo:1991)
Dorotheos of Gaza, Discourses and Sayings, tr. E. P. Wheeler (Kalamazoo:1977)
Germanos of Constantinople, On the Divine Liturgy, tr. and intro. Paul Meyendorff (Crestwood, NY:1984)
Georgia, Lives and Legends of the Georgian Saints, tr. David Lang (London: rev. ed. 1976)
Gregory Palamas, The Triads, selected with notes and introduction by John Meyendorff, tr. Nicholas Gendle (NY:1983)
——————–, The One Hundred and Fifty Chapters, ed. and tr., with introduction by Robert E. Sinkiewicz (Toronto:1988)
Gregory of Sinai, Discourse on the Transfiguration, ed., tr., with introduction by David Balfour (San Bernardino, CA:1990)
Holy Women of the Syrian Orient, tr. with introduction by Susan A. Harvey and Sebastian P. Brock (Berkeley: rev. ed. 1998)
Isaac of Nineveh, The Ascetical Homilies of St. Isaac of Nineveh, tr. with introduction by Dana Miller, Holy Transfiguration Monastery (Boston:1984)
Jacob of Serug, On the Mother of God, tr. Mary Hansbury (Crestwood, NY:1998)
John Climachus, The Ladder of Divine Ascent, tr. Colm Liubheid and Norman Russell, intro. by Kallistos Ware (NY:1982)
John of Damascus, On the Divine Images, tr. David Anderson (Crestwood, NY:1980)
John Moschus, The Spiritual Meadow, tr. John Wortely (Kalamazoo:1992)
Maximus the Confessor, Selected Writings, tr. with notes by George C. Berthold (NY:1985)
—————————-, Maximus the Confessor, tr. and introduction by Andrew Louth (Routledge, UK:1996) [Berthold selects from Maximus’ ascetical works, Louth from his more theological writings, notably the Ambigua]
Nicetas Stethatos, Vie de Syméon le nouveau théologien, ed., tr., and introduction by Irenée Hausherr (Rome:1938)
Paul of Monembasia, The Spiritually Beneficial Tales of Bishop Paul of Monembasia, tr. with notes and introduction by John Wortley (Kalamazoo:1996)
Symeon the New Theologian, On the Mystical Life: The Ethical Discourses, tr. Alexander Golitzin, two volumes (Crestwood, NY:1995-1996)
Symeon Stylites, The Lives of Symeon Stylites, tr. and introduction by Robert Doran (Kalamazoo:1992)
Symeon of Thessalonica, Treatise on Prayer: An Explanation of the Services Conducted in the Orthodox Church, tr. Harry Simmons (Brookline, MA:1984)
Theodore the Studite, On the Holy Icons, tr. Catherine Roth (Crestwood, NY:1981)
Theoleptos of Philadelphia, The Life and Letters of Theoleptos of Philadelphia, tr. with introduction by Angela C. Hero (Brookline, MA:1994)
A. Source Texts, Part II: Some 18th and 19th century sources
Holy Women of Russia: The Lives of Five Orthodox Women, tr. Brenda Meehan (NY:1993) [selected from 19th century devotional literature]
John of Cronstadt, The Spiritual Counsels of John of Cronstadt, selected and tr. W. Jardine Grisbrooke (Crestwood, NY: rep. 1981)
Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain, A Handbook of Spiritual Counsel, tr. Peter Chamberas, introduction by George Bebis (NY:1989)
Païssy Velichkovsky, The Life and Ascetic Labors of our Father, the Elder Paissius, Archimandrite of the Holy Moldavian Monasteries of Niamets and Sekoul. Optina Version, Schema-Monk Mitrophanes, tr. St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood (Platina, CA:1976) [19th century, Russian vita of the 18th century elder]
Theophan the Recluse, Unseen Warfare, as Edited by Nicodemus of the Holy Mountain and Revised by Theophan the Recluse, tr. E. Kadloubovsky and G. E. H. Palmer, introduction by H. A. Hodges (Crestwood, NY:1978)
B. Selected Studies
Hilarion Alfeyev, “The Patristic Background of Symeon the New Theologian’s Doctrine of Light”, Studia Patristica 32 (1997) 229-238
——————-, “St. Symeon the New Theologian, St. Symeon the Pious and the Studite Tradition”, Studia Monastica 36 (1994) 183-222.
Emmanuel Amand de Mendieta, Mount Athos: The Garden of the Panagia, tr. Michael R.Bruce (Berlin/Amsterdam:1972)
Hans Urs von Balthasar, Kosmische Liturgie: Das Weltbild Maximus des Bekenners, 2nd ed. revised (Einsiedeln:1961)
Robert Beulay, La lumière sans forme: Introduction à l’!étude de la mystique chrétienne syro-orientale (Chevtogne:1987)
—————–, L’enseignement spirituel de Jean de Dalyatha: Mystique syro-oriental du VIIIe siècle (Paris:1990)
Paul S. Blowers, Exegesis and Spiritual Pedagogy in Maximus the Confessor (Notre Dame:1991)
Boris Bobrinskoy, The Mystery of the Trinity: Trinitarian Experience and Vision in the Biblical and Patristic Tradition, tr. Anthony Gythiel (Crestwood, NY:1999)
René Bornert, Les commentaires byzantins de la Divine Liturgie du VIIe au XVe siècle (Paris:1966)
Vera Boutenev, translator, Father Arseny, 1893-1973: Priest, Prisoner, Spiritual Father (Crestwood, NY:1998)
Archimandrite Cherubim, Contemporary Ascetics of Mount Athos, tr. St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood, two volumes (Platina, CA:1992) [19th and 20th century Athonite hermits and other monastic saints]
Igumen Chariton of Valaamo, The Art of Prayer: An Orthodox Anthology, tr. E. Kadloubovsky and E. M. Palmer, introduction by Timothy Ware (London:1966, rep. 1976)
Sergei Chetverikov, Staretz Païssy Velichkovsky, tr. Vassily Lickwar and Alexander Lisenko (Belmont, MA:1980)
Irenée-Henri Dalmais, “Place de la Mystagogie de Saint Maxime le Confesseur dans la théologie liturgique byzantine”, Studia Patristica 5 (1962) 277-282
John Dunlop, Staretz Amvrossy: Model for Dostoyevsky’s Staretz Zossima (Belmont, MA:1972)
Jas Elsner, Art and the Roman Viewer (Cambridge:1995)
Paul Evdokimov, The Art of the Icon: A Theology of Beauty, tr. Steven Bigham (Redondo Beach, CA:1990)
Pavel Florensky, Iconostasis, tr. Donald Sheehan and Olga Andreyev (Crestwood, NY:1996)
Alexander Golitzin, “‘A Contemplative and a Liturgist’: Fr. Georges Florovsky on the Corpus Dionysiacum“, St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 43.2 (1999) 131-161
———————-, “‘Earthly Angels and Heavenly Men’: The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Nicetas Stethatos, and the Tradition of ‘Interiorized Apocalyptic’ in Eastern Christian Ascetical and Mystical Literature”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, forthcoming
———————-, Symeon the New Theologian on the Mystical Life, vol. III:Life, Times, Theology (Crestwood, NY:1997)
———————-, The Living Witness of the Holy Mountain: Contemporary Voices from Mount Athos (South Canaan, PA:1996)
Nadejda Gorodetsky, St. Tikhon of Zadonsk: Inspirer of Dostoyevsky (rev. ed. Crestwood, NY:1976)
J. Gouillard, “Quatre procès de mystique à Byzance”, Revue des études byzantines (1981) 5-81
Sergei Hackel, editor, The Byzantine Saint, Studies Supplementary to Sobornost 5 (London:1981)
Susan A. Harvey, “The Sense of a Stylite: Perspectives on Symeon the Elder”, Vigiliae christianae 42 (1988) 376-394
——————–, “Embodiment in Time and Eternity: A Syriac Perspective”, St. Vladimir’s Theological Quarterly 43.2 (1999) 105-130
Antonios Hatzopoulos, Two Outstanding Cases in Byzantine Spirituality: The Macarian Homilies and St. Symeon the New Theologian, Analecta Blatadon 54 (Thessalonica:1991)
Irenée Hausherr, Penthos: The Doctrine of Mourning in the Christian East, tr. Anselm Hufstader (Kalamazoo:1982)
——————-, The Name of Jesus, tr. Charles Cummings (Kalamazoo:1978)
——————-, Saint Théodore le studite: l’homme et l’ascète (Rome:1926, rep.1964)
J. M. Hussey, Ascetics and Humanists in XIth Century Byzantium (London:1960)
—————, The Orthodox Church in the Byzantine Empire (Oxford:1986)
—————, “Symeon and Nicholas Cabasilas: Similarities and Contrasts in Orthodox Spirituality”, Eastern Churches Review 4.2 (1972) 131-140
Ioan Ic, “Il mistero del Volto di Christo nella Tradizione orientale: eikón, prospon e icona”, Il Volto dei Volti Christo, editrice elar (Gorle, Italy:1997) 71-79
———-, “La Posterità Romena dello ‘Starec Paisij'”, in Paisij, lo Starec, ed. Adalberto Mainardi (Communita di Bose:1996) 245-266
Endre von Ivanka, Plato Christianus (Einsiedeln:1964)
Bishop Seraphim Joanta, Romania: Its Hesychast Tradition and Culture, tr. St. Xenia Scete (Wildwood, CA:1992)
Ernst Kitzinger, Byzantine Art in the Making (Cambridge, MA:1977)
Ivan M. Kontzevich, The Northern Thebaïd: Monastic Saints of the Russian North, tr. St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood (Platina, CA:1975) [These are not critical editions of the 14th-16th century virtae, but the latter as filtered through 19th century readers, but still a valuable collection stressing continuities with Byzantine Hesychasm]
Pierre Kovalevsky, Saint Sergius and Russian Spirituality, tr. W. Elias Jones (Crestwood, NY:1975)
G. B. Ladner, “The Concept of the Image in the Greek Fathers and the Byzantine Iconoclastic Controversy”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 7 (1953) 1-34
Emmanuel Lanne, “L’interprétation palamite de la vision de Saint Benoît”, Le millenaire de Mont Athos: 963-1963 (Chevtogne-Venezia:1964) II:21-47
Jean-Claude Larchet, La divinisation de l’homme selon Saint Maxime le Confesseur (Paris:1996)
Vladimir Lossky, In the Image and Likeness of God, tr. John Erickson and Thomas Bird (Crestwood, NY:1974, rep. 1985)
——————-, The Mystical Theology of the Eastern Church, tr. Fellowship of SS Alban and Sergius (London:1957, rep.Cambridge/London:1968)
——————-, The Vision of God, tr. Ashley Moorhouse (London:1963, rep. Crestwood, NY:1983)
George Mantzarides, The Deification of Man: St. Gregory Palamas and Orthodox Tradition, tr. Liadain Sherrard (Crestwood, NY:1984)
T. F. Matthews, The Early Churches of Constantinople: Architecture and Liturgy (Penn State:1971)
John Meyendorff, Byzantine Theology (Oxford:1975)
——————–, Byzantium and the Rise of Russia (Crestwood, NY:1989)
——————–, Christ in Eastern Christian Thought (Washington DC:1969)
——————–, “Mount Athos in the 14th Century: Spiritual and Intellectual Legacy”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 42 (1988) 157-165
———————-, St. Gregory Palamas and Orthodox Spirituality, tr. Adele Fisk (Crestwood, NY:1974, rep. 1999)
Pierre Miquel, Le vocabulaire de l’expérience spirituelle dans la tradition patristique grecque du IVe au XIVe siècle (Beauchesne:1991)
Donald M. Nicol, Church and Society in the Last Centuries of Byzantium (Cambridge:1975)
Konrad Onasch and Anne Marie Schnieper, Icons: The Fascination and the Reality (NY:1997)
Leonid Ouspensky, The Theology of the Icon (Crestwood, NY:1978)
Jaroslav Pelikan, Imago Dei: The Byzantine Apologia for Icons (Princeton:1990)
John M. Rist, “Pseudo-Dionysius, Neoplatonism and the Weakness of the Soul”, in From Athens to Chartres: Neoplatonism and Medieval Thought. Studies in Honor of Edouard Jeauneau, ed. H. J. Westra (Leiden/NY:1992) 135-161
John S. Romanides, “Notes on the Palamite Controversy and Related Questions”, Greek Orthodox Theological Review 6.2 (1960/61) 186-205, 9.2 (1963/64) 225-270
Steven Runciman, The Great Church in Captivity (Cambridge:1968) [Virtually unique in English in offering a history of the Greek Church under Ottoman rule, with somenote of the Athonite revival in the 18th century]
André Scrima, “L’avènement philocalique dans l’orthodoxie roumaine”, Istina (1958) 295-328 and 443-475
Phillip Sherrard, Athos the Holy Mountain (London/Woodstock, NY:1982)
Archimandrite Sophrony, St. Silouan the Athonite, tr. Rosemary Edmonds (Crestwood,NY:1999)
Nun Maria Stakhovich and Sergius Bolshakoff, Interior Silence: Elder Michael, the Last Great Mystic of Valaam, tr. St. Herman of Alaska Brotherhood (Platina, CA:1992)
Dumitru Staniloae, Theology and the Church, tr. Robert Barringer (Crestwood, NY:1980)
The Experience of God, tr. Ioan Ionit and Robert Barringer (Brookline, MA:1994)
Lars Thunberg, Microcosm and Mediator: The Theological Anthropology of Maximus the Confessor (2nd edition, Chicago:1995)
H. J. M. Turner, St Symeon the New Theologian and Spiritual Fatherhood (Leiden:1990)
Archimandrite Vassileios, Hymn of Entry, tr. Elisabeth Briere (Crestwood, NY:1984)
Archimandrite Hierotheos Vlachos, A Night in the Desert of the Holy Mountain, tr. Nativity of the Theotokos Monastery (Livadia, Greece:1991)
Bishop Kallistos Ware, “Forward”, to the translation of I. Hausherr’s Spiritual Direction in the
Early Christian East, vii-xxxiii
The Power of the Name (Fairacres, Oxford:1974)
“The Spiritual Father in Orthodox Christianity”, Cross Currents 24 (1974) 296-313