*Of shining whiteness,
Kafi who inspires lust tenderly
sits on the lap of her playmate in the royal palace,
fond of parrots she is dressed in blue
and decked with jewels.
She is the image of sensuousness.
In the Lotus of my heart
I cherish her,
lovlier than Lakshmi
the goddess of Fortune.
हिन्दुस्तानी शास्त्रीय संगीत-
A brief treatise on the THAATS of The Classical Music of India
ہندوستانی کلاسیکی موسیقی
According to Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936), one of the most influential musicologists in the field of North Indian classical music in the twentieth century, each one of the several traditional ragas is based on, or is a variation of, ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks. The ten thaats are Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi; if one were to pick a raga at random, it should be possible to find that it is based on one or the other of these thaats. For instance, the ragas Shree and Puriya Dhanashri are based on the Poorvi thaat, Malkauns on the Bhairavi, and Darbari Kanada on the Asavari thaat. It is important to point out that Bhatkande’s thaat-raga theory is hardly infallible, but it is nevertheless an important classificatory device with which to order, and make sense of, a bewildering array of ragas; and it is also a useful tool in the dissemination of the music to students.
It is worth noting that almost all the thaats mentioned above are also ragas; and yet a thaat is a very different musical entity from a raga, and in this difference may lie, crucially, a definition of what a raga is or is not. A thaat is a musical scale, conceived of as a Western musical scale might be, with the seven notes presented in their order of ascent (arohan). For instance, Asavari is presented, and notated, as Sa Re Ga (flat or komal) Ma Pa Dha (flat) Ni (flat) in ascent, or arohan. This is, however, only the skeletal musical structure of the raga Asavari, an abstraction that is to be found nowhere but on the printed page or inside a textbook; the raga Asavari, in reality, and in exposition, is a very different thing. It goes straight from Re to Ma, and comes down to touch Ga, as it ascends; having touched Ni later, it returns to Pa, and, touching the upper Sa, returns to Dha and Pa again and again. Arohan and avarohan are, thus, inextricably and inseparably intermingled in the structure of this raga. The raga, then, is not a musical scale in the Western sense; it is a characteristic arrangement or progression of notes whose full potential and complexity can be realised only in exposition, and not upon the printed page. A condensed version of this characteristic arrangement of notes, peculiar to each raga, may be called the pakad, by which a listener hears the phrase Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Ga, none of these notes being flat or sharp. Repeated in a recital, they will know that they are listening to the raga Gaud Sarang.
Two ragas may have identical notes and yet be very different ragas; for example, two ragas mentioned earlier, Shree and Puriya Dhanashri, have exactly the same notes, but are unmistakably different in structure and temperament. The first can be identified by its continual exploration of the relationship of the note Re to the note Paa; while the repetition of the phrase Ma Re Ga Re Ma Ga, a phrase that would be inadmissible in the first raga, is an enduring feature of the latter. Certain arrangements of notes, then, are opposite to particular ragas and taboo to all others. A simple and abstract knowledge, thus of the notes of a raga or the thaat on which it is based, is hardly enough to ensure a true familiarity or engagement with the raga, although it may serve as a convenient starting point. Thaat familiarity can only come from a constant exposure to, and critical engagement, with raga’s exposition.
(Courtesy by Amit Chaudhuri)
The Kafi That
Raga Kafi belongs to Kafi Thaat. Usually it is rendered in the late evening and uses all the seven notes in the ascending and descending order. Gandhar and Nishad are komal (flat) and all other notes are shuddha (full). The derivative ragas out of this structure are grouped under the broad head of Kafi Thaat
Raga Kafi is representative of the Kafi Thaat. It is a versatile raga and can be played anytime. The raga has influenced folk music heavily and it is common to find folk songs and bhajans in this raga. Pure forms of Kafi are rarely performed.
Other Ragas in Thaat Kafi:
Moods: Bhakti, Shringar, Hori, Tappa
Aaroha: S R g m P D n S’
Avaroha: S’ n D P m g R S
Jati: Sampurna – Sampurna
Pakad: S R R g m P
Prahar: 6th Prahar (6 PM to 9 PM)
Notable characteristics of the raga: PmgR, RgmP, mgR, S
According to Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande (1860-1936), one of the most influential musicologists in the field of North Indian classical music in the twentieth century, each one of the several traditional ragas is based on, or is a variation of, ten basic thaats, or musical scales or frameworks. The ten thaats are Bilawal, Kalyan, Khamaj, Bhairav, Poorvi, Marwa, Kafi, Asavari, Bhairavi and Todi; if one were to pick a raga at random, it should be possible to find that it is based on one or the other of these thaats. For instance, the ragas Shri and Puriya Dhanashri are based on the Poorvi thaat, Malkauns on the Bhairavi, and Darbari Kanada on the Asvari thaat. It is important to point out that Bhatkande’s thaat-raga theory is not very accurate, but it is nevertheless an important classificatory device with which to order, and make sense of, a bewildering array of ragas; and it is also a useful tool in the dissemination of the music to students.
There are certain rules for these Thaats.
1. A Thaat must have seven notes out of the twelve notes [Seven Shuddha, Four komal (Re, Ga, Dha , Ni), one teevra (Ma) ], placed in an ascending order. Both the forms of the notes can be used.
2. Thaat has only an Aaroha.
3. Thaats are not sung but the raags produced from the Thaats are sung.
4. Thaats are named after the popular raag of that Thaat. For example Bhairavi is a popular raag and the thaat of the raag Bhairavi is named after the raag.
The 10 basic thaats acording to the Bhatkhande System are as follows
1. Bilawal :bilawal
Bilawal is the most basic of all the ten thaats. All the swars in the thaat are shuddha or all swars in the natural scale. Bilawal as a raag is not rendered these days however a small variation of the raag called Alahaiya Bilawal is very common. This is a mornig raag and its pictorial descriptions create a rich, sensuous ambience in consonance with its performance.
Raags in Bilawal Thaat : Deskar, Haunsdhwani, Variations of Bilawal.
2. Khamaj :khamaj
The next thaat is Khamaj which can be obtained by replacing the Shuddha Nishad of Bilawal by Komal Nishad. The raags of this thaat are full of Shringar Ras (romantic) hence this raag is mostly rendered in the form of light classical thumris, tappas, horis, kajris etc. Its pictorial descriptions in the existing texts are sensuous and even today, the raag Khamaj is considered to be a ‘flirtatious’ raag. There is another theory which assumes that in the past, Khamaj scale found its way in Ch’in music of the late medieval China.
Raags in Khamaj Thaat : Rageshree, Jhinjhoti, Des, Tilak Kamod, Jaijaiwanti, Khambavati etc.
Rag Kafi Zilaph
Rag Palas Kafi
3. Kafi :kafi
Kafi thaat makes use of the Komal Gandhar and Komal Nishad. So basically it adds Komal Gandhar to the Khamaj Thaat. raag Kafi is one of the oldest raags and its intervals are described as basic scale of the Natyashastra. Thus in ancient and medieval times, Kafi was considered as natural scale. Kafi is a late evening raag and said to convey the mood of spring time.
Raags in Kafi Thaat : Dhanashree, Dhani, Bhimpalasi, Pilu, Megh Malhar, Bageshree etc.
4. Asavari :asavari
Add Komal Dhaivat to Kafi thaat and you get Asavari Thaat. raag Asavari is full of tyag, the mood of renunciation and sacrifice as well as pathos. It is best suited for late morning. However important evening/night raags like Darbari and Adana also use notes of asavari thaat with different styles, stress points and ornamentations.
Raags in Asavari Thaat : Asavari, Desi, Darbari, Adana, Jaunpuri etc.
5. Bhairavi :bhairavi
Bhairavi makes use of all the komal swars, Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat, Nishad. When singing compositions in Bhairavi raag, the singers however take liberty to use all the 12 swars. Bhairavi raag is names after the shakti or feminine aspect of the cosmic life force, which is personified as a consort to Lord Shiva. Bhairavi is a powerful raag filled with devotion and compassion. Bhairavi is actually performed early in the morning in a peaceful, serious and ocassionally sad mood. Traditionally it is rendered as the last item of a program, for its unique fullness of sentiments as well as its wide scope of the tonal combinations. Pictorially, Bhairavi is represented in female form, as the wife of Bhairav.
Raags in Bhairavi Thaat : Malkauns, Bilaskhani Todi, Bhupali Todi, Kaunsi Kanada etc.
6. Bhairav :bhairav
Bhairav thaat raags make use of Komal Rishabh and Komal Dhaivat. Bhairav is one of the names of Lord Shiva especially in his powerful form as a naked ascetic with matted locks and body smeared with ashes. The raag too has some of these masculine and scetic attributes in its form and compositions. The raag itself is extremely vast and allows a huge number of note combinations and a great range of emotional qualities from valor to peace. You can see a lot of variations on raag Bhairav including (but not restricted to) Ahir Bhairav, Alam Bhairav, Anand Bhairav, Bairagi Bhairav, Beehad Bhairav, Bhavmat Bhairav, Devata Bhairav, Gauri Bhairav, Nat Bhairav, Shivmat Bhairav. This raag is usually performed in a devotional mood in the early morning hours. The vibrations of the notes in Bhairav is said to clear one’s whole mind. The pictorial depictions of raag Bhairav in the ancient texts are austere as well as awe-inspiring.
Raags in Bhairav Thaat : Ramkali, Gunkari, Meghranjani, Jogiya, Bhairav and its variations etc.
7. Kalyan :kalyan
Kalyan thaat consists of a important group of evening raags. Characterized by the teevra Madhyam, this thaat literally means good luck. It is considered to be a blessing-seeking and soothing raag. As a result, it is performed in the evening at the beginning of a concert. This raag creates a feeling of the unfolding of an evening. This thaat is huge and consists of many variations on the basic kalyan thaat including raags (but not restricted to) like Shuddha Kalyan, Shyam Kalyan, Yaman Kalyan, Anandi Kalyan, Khem Kalyan (Haunsdhwani + Yaman), Savani Kalyan etc.
Raags in Kalyan Thaat : Yaman, Bhupali, Hindol, Kedar, Kamod, etc.
8. Marwa :marwa
Marwa thaat is obtained by adding a komal Rishabh to Kalyan thaat. The mood of the Marwa family raags is strongly and easily recognizable. The Shadja remains in the form of a shadow till the very end, where it almost comes as a surprise. komal Rishabh and shuddha Dhaivat are ver important. The overall mood of this raag is of sunset where the night approaches much faster than in northern latitudes. The onrushing darkness awakens in many observers, a feeling of anxiety and solemn expectation.
Raags in Marwa Thaat : Marwa, Puriya, Bhatiyaar, Bibhas, Sohoni etc.
9. Poorvi :poorvi
Poorvi thaat adds a komal Dhaivat to Marwa thaat. These thaat raags usually feature komal Rishabh, shuddha Gandhar and Shuddha Nishad along with teevra Madhyam, the note which distinguishes evening from the morning raags (dawn and sunset). The thaat raag Poorvi is deeply serious quite and mysterious in character and is performed at the time of sunset. Pictorial depictions in early texts, often mention the poise, grace and charm of Poorvi.
Raags in Poorvi Thaat : Puriya Dhanashree, Gauri, Shree, Paraj, Basant etc.
10. Todi :todi
Todi is the king of all thaats. Todi pictures nearly always show a petite, beautiful woman, holding veena, with a deer around her, standing in a lovely, lush green forest. Todi represents the mood of delighted adoration with a gentle, loving sentiment and its traditionally performed in the late morning.
Raags in Todi Thaat : Miyan Ki Todi, Gujari Todi, Madhuvanti, Multani etc.
The Karnatik Origin of KAFI is rAgam Kharaharapriya
Raga : Kharaharapriya
Other names: Kafi Thaat ( Hindustani)
Arohana: S R2 G1 M1 P D2 N1 S || S Ri Gi Ma Pa Dhi Ni S
Avarohana: S N1 D2 P M1 G1 R2 S || S Ni Dhi Pa Ma Gi Ri S
Time: All Times
Amsa Swaras: R, P
Jeeva Swaras: R, G, D, N
Nyasa Swaras: R, G, D, N
Murchanakaraka Ragas: R -> Hanumatodi
G -> Kalyani
M -> Harikambhoji
P -> Natabhairavi
D -> Sankarabharanam
Special Considerations: Similar to Shadja Grama
1. mELam 22 – kharaharapriya
KHARAHARAPRIYA is the fourth mELam (bhU) in the fourth cakram, vEda cakram. Hence it is usually referred to by the mnemonic name “vEda bhU”, since there are 4 vEdAs, and the kaTapayAdi numeral for the consonant “bha” is 4 (from the “pa varga”: pa, pha, ba, bha, ma!) The svarams taken by the mELam kharaharapriya are:
SaDjam (S, sa), catushruti .rSabham(R2, ri), sAdAraNa gAndhAram (G1, ga), shuddha madhyamam (M1, ma), pa~ncamam (P, pa), catushruti dhaivatam (D2, dhi), kaiSiki niSAdham (N2, ni).
Alathur Brothers-Chakkini Raja
Thus, the mnemonic svara nomenclature for kharaharapriya is ri gi ma dhi ni, showing that besides the notes sa, pa, the notes taken are ri (R2), ga (G1), ma (M1), dhi (D2), ni (N2).
The first two syllables “kha ‑ ra” in the name yields the mELam number 22 according to the kaTapayAdi scheme (that is, kha =2 (from ka, kha g gh N^),and ra =2 (from ya ra la va), so 2 2 reversed still gives 22!!). Some believe that the original name of this mELam was harapriya, and the prefix “khara” was added to obtain the numeral 22. But kharaharapriya itself has the meaning ‑‑ priya (beloved of, liked by) hara (slayer of) khara (the demon named khara).
· kharaharapriya is a mELam with symmetrical tetrachords; intervals are separated by a major tone. The mELam gets is pleasing quality from the even distribution of the notes. The ri ‑‑ ga, and the dha ‑‑ ni are in consonance and the interval between sa ‑‑ ri, ma ‑‑ pa, and dha ‑‑ ni are all equal. This facilitates singing of saN^gatis in sets which can independently interpret the melody, and allow the singer to build the AlApana phrase by phrase.
· a major rAgam, capable of very lengthy AlApanAs.
· chAyA and nyAsa svarams : ri, ga, dha, ni;
· aMsha svarams: ri and pa
· kharaharapriya is approximately equal to the SaDja grAmam of ancient music, the primordial scale of the Hindus
· kharaharapriya is a sarva svara gamaka vArikA rakti rAgam. The pratyAhata gamakam (ri sa, sa ni, ni dha, dha pa, pa ma, ma ga, ga ri) lends color to this mELam. Yet, unlike an average rAgam, kharaharapriya comes out beautifully even without employing much gamakam.
· kharaharapriya is a tristhAyI rAgam. Compositions in kharaharapriya usually begin in sa, ri, pa ,ni.
· prayOgams NI dha PA ma GA ri NI da pa dha ni sa ni dha PA ma GA ri
· kharaharapriya admits prayogams ending in the note ni. Only the notes sa, pa enjoy this privilege!
· A mUrccanakAraka mELam, that admits graha bhedam (modal shift of tonic), yielding the mELams hanumatODi (8), mEcakalyANi (65), harikAmbhOji (28), naThabhairavi (20), dhIrashaN^karAbharaNam (29), respectively, when the notes ri, ga, ma, pa, and ni are taken as the tonic AdhAra shaDjam.
· kharaharapriya corresponds to the Phrygian mode in Greek, the Dorian in Ecclesiastical, the “D” mode in European and the Irak mode in Arab music.
· SArN^gadEva, the author of saN^gIta ratnAkara mentions that kharaharapriya contains all svarams of sAma vEda. Since Lord shiva is pleased with sAma vEda chants, it is appropriate that this mELam assumes the name ” harapriya”.
· a rAgam suitable for singing at all times. It evokes karuNa rasam
· Among the musical trinity, Saint tyAgarAja is the sole composer who has given full life to kharaharapriya by composing a large number of k.rtis. Neither muttusvAmi dIkSitar nor shyAma sAstri has composed in this mELa rAgam. TyAgarAja’s “cakkani rAjamArgamu” is the most popular composition in kharaharapriya.
· It is a puzzle why muttusvAmi dIkSitar did not compose any k.rti in kharaharapriya. The obvious answer is that he composed only in rudrapriya which is “almost” kharaharapriya, except that the note ” dha”’ is absent in the avarOhaNam.
· kharaharapriya has helped the nAdasvaram to acquire recognition as a major musical instrument. NAdasvaram exponents like Karaikkuricci Arunachalam, have indulged in this rAgam for long stretches, especially when rendering some weighty tyAgarAja compositions.
· pallavi expositions in kharaharapriya are very common. Nowadays, we can hear rAgamAlikA svarams sung at the concluding segment of a pallavi in kharaharapriya where the artist chooses a number of priya‑suffixed rAgams (such as gAyakapriya, SaNmukhapriya, raghupriya, gOpriya, sunAdapriya, varuNapriya, and so forth!!).
· Balamuralikrishna has composed a rAgamAlikA tillanA in five priya‑suffixed rAgams that includes kharaharapriya as the last one.
· There are many folk tunes and kAvaDi cindu songs in kharaharapriya. Also, many tiruppugazh hymns are rendered in kharaharapriya. The cine world in south India has its fair share of songs in this mELam.
2. Some Compositions in kharaharapriya
kOri sEvimpa rArE Adi tyAgarAja
cakkani rAjamArgamu luNDana Adi tyAgarAja
cEtulAra sh.rN^gAramu cEsi Adi tyAgarAja
naDaci naDaci jUcE Adi tyAgarAja
pakkala nilabaTi mishra cApu tyAgarAja
pAhi rAma rAmayanacu rUpakam tyAgarAja
pEriDi ninnu Adi tyAgarAja
mitra bhAgyamE bhAgyamu Adi tyAgarAja
rAma nIyeDA Adi tyAgarAja
rAma nI samAnamevaru rUpakam tyAgarAja
viDamu sEyavE nannu Adi tyAgarAja
appan avataritta Adi pApanAsham shivan
AraNamum jhampa pApanAsham shivan
dayavilklaiyA Adi pApanAsham shivan
dharmAmbikE Adi pApanAsham shivan
enna sheidAlum Adi pApanAsham shivan
jAnakIpatE Adi pApanAsham shivan
parAmukham EnayyA Adi pApanAsham shivan
vINA alaiyAdE Adi pApanAsham shivan
kAdali rAdhayai Adi pApanAsham shivan
okapari kokapari Adi annamAcArya
allikkENikkarai Adi UttukkADu veN^kaTakavi
bhaktiyOga aN^gItamArgamE Adi UttukkADu veN^kaTakavi
enna parAmukham ammA Adi UttukkADu veN^kaTa kavi
inta parAkElarA Adi pallavi shESayyar
gAnasudhArasa Adi mysore vAsudEvAcAriar
saN^kalpameTTidO Adi paTNam subrahmaNya iyer
ninnunammina rUpakam karUr cinna dEvuDu
kaNNan maNivaNNan rUpakam muttayyA bhAgavatar
mUvAshai koNDE Adi muttayyA bhAgavatar
tyAgarAjaguru Adi vINa kuppayyar
inda varam taruvAi rUpakam vEdanAyakam piLLai
inda manamoru rUpakam T. LakSmaNan piLLai
inta parAkElarA Adi pallavi sheSayyar
inda janmam vENDum rUpakam gOpAlak.rSNa bhArathi
rArAyani pilacitE Adi myspre vAsudEvAcAriar
tyAgarAja Adi tiruvoTTiyUr tyAgarAjan
ninnu kolici rUpakam rAmnAD shrInivAsa iyengAr
kaN pArayyA Adi kOTIshvara iyer
aruLvAy shrImInalOcani Adi kOTIshvara iyer
aravaNai tuyinriDum Adi Calcutta K. S. Krishnamurthi
anbE ArumarandAlum Adi periyasAmi tUran
kAlanE bvIzhttiya Adi periyasAmi tUran
dharnmashAstA Adi tuLasIvanam
raktakaNthEshvaram Adi tuLasIvanam
shabarIshvaram Adi tuLasIvanam
rAmA nIvE (va.rNam) Adi tenmaDam narasimhAcAri
satatam tAvaka padasEvanaM svAti tirunAL
Remark: Professor Sambamurthi mentions that the tyAgarAja k.ri “rAmA nIyeDA” is not set in kharaharapriya, but in the rAgam dilIpakam.
3. janyams of kharaharapriya
kharaharapriya lends itself to a huge number of janya rAgams. Many of these janyams are important in their own right. Walter Kaufmann’s “Ragas of South India” lists 132 janyams of kharaharapriya. They are:
shrI, AbhOgi, kAnaDa, darbAr, nAyaki, AbhEri, Ananda vAridhi, AndOLika, anilAvaLi, bAlacandrika, bAlaghOSi(Ni), bhadra sAraN^galIla, bhAgavatapriya, bhAgyara~njani, bhOgakannaDa, bhOgavati, bhramarikA ma~njari, bhUyOmaNi, b.rndAvanasAraN^ga, cakra pradIpta, candrakala, candramaNDana, carAvaLi, cAtam, chandOdhari, chAyA shObhitam, cittara~njani, dEshya kAnaDa, dEshya kApi, dEshya manOhari, dEvakriya, dEvamanOhari, dEvAm.rtavarSiNi, dEvamukhAri, dEvara~njani, dhAtumanOhari, dhIrakaLa, dilIpakam, gAnavasantam, gArava simhala, gauri vasantam, ghana kEshi, ghanaja ghana, grandhavikSEpam, hanOkaha,hariharamOhini, harinArAyaNi, hEmAvaLi, hindOLavasantam, hindustAn kApi, husEni, Inakapriya,janAndOLika, jayAkSari, jayama~njari, jayamanOhari, jayanArAyaNi, jayantasEna, jhAlama~njari, jIvaka vasantam, kaishika, kaLAnidhi, kalAsvarUpi,kalhAru, kALikA, kALindi, kalyANa taraN^giNi, kalyANa vasantam*, kanaka varALi, kannaDa gauLa, kannaDa varALi, kApi, kApi jiN^gaLa, karaNi, ka.rNATaka dEvagAndhAri, ka.rNATaka kApi, kApi, kaThinya, ka.rNara~njani, khilAvaLi, kiraNa bhAskara, kumudapriya, kundamAlika, lalitagAndhAri, lalitamanOhari, mAdhi, madhyamAvati, makuTa dhAriNi, mALavashrI, mallAru, mandamari, maNiraN^gu, ma~njari, manOhari, mArgahindoLam, maruvadhanyAshi, mAyApratIpam, mukhAri, nadacintAmaNi, nAdamUrti, nAdataraN^giNi, nAdanapriya, navaratnavilAsam, nAgari, phalama~njari, pa~ncama, pUrNakalAnidhi, pUrNaSaDjam, pUrvamukhAri, puSpalatika, rItigauLa, rudrapriya, saindhavi, sAlaga bhairavi, samkrantanapriya, siddhasEna, shrImanOhari, shrIra~njani, shubhAN^gi, shuddhabaN^gaLa, shuddhabhairavi, shuddha dhanyAshi, shuddhamadhyamam, shuddhamanOhari, shuddhavElAvali, suguNabhUSaNi, sujaris, svarabhUSaNi, svarakalAnidhi, svarara~njani, udayaravicandrika, varamu
*Walter Kaufmann mentions two versions of kalyANa vasantam, one the traditional classification under kIravANi (mELam 21) and the other under kharaharapriya. However, the version of the popular kr.ti “nAdalOluDai” as sung by the Chittoor school with chatusruti dhaivatam, would have kalyANa vasantam classified under gauri manOhari (mElam 23).
4. scales of some important janyams
janyam ArOhaNam avarOhaNam
AbhEri sa ga ma pa ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
AbhOgi sa ri ga ma dha sa sa dha ma gai sa
AndOLika sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni dha ma ri sa
aThANa* sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni Dha pa ma pa Ga ma ri sa
b.rndAvanasAraN^ga sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni pa ma ri ga sa
cittara~njanini sa ri ga ma pa dha ni ni dha pa ma ga ri sa ni
darbAr sa ri ma pa dha ni sa sa Ni dha pa ma ri Ga Ga ri sa
dEvamanOhari sa ri ma pa dha ni sa sa ni dha ni pa ma ri sa
dEvAm.rtavarSiNi sa ri ga ma ni dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
dilIpakam sa ri ma pa dha ni dha pa ma ni dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga risa
hindustAni kApi sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni dha ni pa ma ga ri sa
husEni sa pa ma pa ni dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
jayamanOhari sa ri ga ma dha sa sa ni dha ma ga ri sa
jayanArAyaNi sa ri ga ma pa dha sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
jayantasEna sa ga ma pa dha sa sa ni dha pa ma ga sa
kalAnidhi sa ri ga ma sa pa ma dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
kAnaDa sa ri Ga ma Dha ni sa sa ni pa ma Ga ma Ri sa
kannaDagauLa sa ri ga ma pa ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga sa
karNara~njani sa ri ga ma ga pa dha sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
kuntaLavarALi sa ma pa ni dha sa sa ni dha pa ma sa
madhyamAvati sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni pa ma ri sa
mALavashri sa ga ma pa ni dha ni pa dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga sa
maNiraN^gu sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni pa ma Ga ri sa
ma~njari sa ga ri ga ma pa ni dha ni sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
manOhari sa ri ga ma pa dha sa sa dha pa ma ga ri sa
mukhAri sa ri ma pa ni dha sa sa nidha pa ma ga ri sa
nAyaki sa ri ma pa dha pa sa sa Ni dha pa ma ri Ga ri sa
pashupatipriya sa ri ma pa ma dha sa sa dha pa ma ri ma sa
phalama~njari sa ga ma pa ma dha sa sa ni dha pa ma Ga ma ri sa
pUrNa SaDjam sa ri ga ma ni ni sa sa ni pa ma Ga ri sa
puSpalatika sa ri ga ma pa ni sa sa ni pa ma ga ri sa
rItigauLa* sa ga ri ga ma ni dha ma ni ni sa sa ni dha ma ga ma pa Ma ga ri sa
rudrapriya sa ri ga ma pa dha ni sa sa ni pa ma ga ri sa
sAlagabhairavi sa ri ma pa dha sa sa ni dha pa ma ga ri sa
siddhasena sa ga ri ga ma pa dha sa sa ni dha ma pa ma ri ga ri sa
shrI sa ri ma pa ni sa sa ni pa dha ni pa ma ri ga ri sa
shrIra~njani sa ri ga ma dha ni sa sa ni dha ma ga ri sa
shuddha baN^gaLa sa ri ma pa dha sa sa dha pa ma ri ga ri sa
shuddha dhanyAshi sa ga ma pa ni sa sa ni pa ma ga sa
supoSiNi sa ri sa ma pa ni dha sa sa dha ni pa ma ri ma sa
svarabhUSaNi sa ga ma pa dha ni sa sa ni pa ma ga ma ri sa
(* aThANa is more of a phrase-oriented rAgam with a unique identity. Some texts classify this under dHIrasa~nkarAbharaNaM. Prof. S. R. Janakiraman’s recent book contends that aThANa should be placed under kharaharapriya.)
5. kAfi ThATh ‑ hindustAni paddhati
The Hindusthani ThATh kAfi corresponds to kharaharapriya of ka.rNATik music. The svarams used are: tIvra ri, komal ga, shuddh ma, tIvra dha, komal ni. vadi is pa, and samvadi is sa. It is an evening rag. The usage of joD (double svaras) sa sa, ri ri ga ga, ma ma, pa pa is pleasing. In this rAgam, the notes ga , ri in the pUrvAN^g, and ni, dha in the uttarAN^g should be frequently employed. Ending of AlAp with pa ma ga ri is graceful. Beauty of kAfi rests in sa, ga, pa ni. Pure kAfi is rarely rendered, and what is presented as kAfi contains touches of sindhUri. You can hear tumri, bhajan, hOri, Tappa, ghazal , or sometimes dhrupad in kAfi.
The following rAgams are derivatives of kAfi:‑‑
bhImpalAsi, dhani, dhanashri, bhim, paTadIp, bArva, sindhUra,sindh, hansakiN^kiNi, bhAgEshri, bahAr, pIlU, palAsi, the mallAri group ( megh malhAr, miyAn ki malhAr, gauD malhAr, shuddh malhAr, naTh malhAr, sUr malhAr, rAmdAsi malhAr, rUpma~njari malhAr, mIrAbAi ki malhAr,nAyaki malhAr, jayant malhAr, carajuki malhAr, dEsh malhAr, ca~ncalasasa malhAr, dhulia malhAr), candrakauns,shrIra~njani,patma~njari, mAlgu~nj, gauD, the sAraN^g group ( bindrabani sAraN^g, madhumati sAraN^g, bhadhauns sAraN^g, miyAn ki sAraN^g, laN^kAdahan sAraN^g, samant sAraN^g, nUr sAra.ng).
6. asampU.rNa mELam 22 ‑‑ shrI
According to DIkSitar school of asampUrNa mELa paddhati, rAgAN^ga rAgam 22 is shrI.
lakSaNaM (Definition) ( VeN^kaTamakhin):
shrI rAgaH sagrahaH pUrNaH cArOhE cAlpadhaivataH
avarohe ga vakraH syAt sAyam gEyaH shubhAvaha.h
ArohaNaM: sa ri ma pa ni Sa
avarohaNaM: Sa ni pa dha ni pa ma ri Ga ri sa
The notes taken are: SaDjaM. catushruti ri, shuddha ma, pa~ncamam, catushruti dha, sAdhAraNa ga, kAkaLi ni,. In the ArohaNam, dha and ni are absent. Only the ArohaNam permits vakra sa~ncAra. In fact there are two vakra sa~ncArams. The rAgam gets a beauty by the elongation and gamaka on the note ga.
· An audava‑vakra rAgam dervived from 22nd mELam kharaharapriya.
· The chAyA svarams are ri and ni.
· the nyAsa svaram is ri.
· sa, ri, ma, pa, ni are the graha svarams.
· SubbarAma DIkSitar states that ri in the ArohaNan is both the jIva and nyAsa
· svaram. The phrases ri ga ri sa, pa dha ni pa in avarohaNam give beauty.
· A raga suitable for singing ( tAnam on the vINa; auspicious, and suitable for singing in the evening.
· shrI is an evening rAgam, a ghana rAgam, and auspicious rAgam (maN^gaLa karam), and is preferred by vaiNikas for rendering tAnam.
· The sa~ncArams given in Sangita Sampradaya Pradarshini are unique in the sense that there is no dhaivata prayOga. Being a maN^gaLa rAgam, it is most often heard in concerts, almost invariable, at least very briefly played after the maN^gaLam.
· The last of Saint tyAgAraja’s five gems ( pa~ncaratnaM): ” endarO mahAnubhavulu “ is in shrI.
· SaN^gIta SaMpradAya Pradarshini, the it magnum opus work of SubbarAma DIkSitar, lists under shrI, a lakSya gItam in maTya tALam (without using the note dha), a tAnam by Venkatamakhin, in maTyam, a kIrtanam by Kumara Ettappa Maharaja ( SaDAdhAra tatva vinAyaka in Adi), a sa~ncAri by Subbarama Dikshitar, and four k.rtis of Muttuswami Dikshitar (shrImUlAdhAracakra vinAyaka, tyAgarAja mahadhvajArOha, =’srIvaralakd mi, and shrIkamalAmbikE ).
· In Hindusthani music, shri rAga is entirely different; it is derived from pUrvi ThAT (equivalent of kAmavardhani), and is audava‑sampUrNa in nature. pUriyA dhanashri and
· gauri are two allied rAgams that resemble Hindusthani shri. One type of badahamsa sAraN^g of Hindusthani resembles karnaTik shri very closely.
· SaN^gIta SaMpradAya Pradarshini discusses the following janyams of the rAgAN^ga rAgam shrI:
upAN^gam: ‑‑‑ maNiraN^gu, sAlagabhairavi, shuddha dhanyAshi, kannaDa gauLa, shuddhadEshi, mALavashrI,
bhASAN^gam:‑‑‑ shrIra~njani, kApi, hushAni, b.rndAvani, saindhavi, mAdhavamanOhari, madhyamAvati, dEvamanOhari, rudrapriya, sahAna, nAyaki
7. Some Compositions in shri
sami ninne kori (Adi) (Karur Devidu Iyer)
endukina modi (Adi) (Patnam Subrahmanya Iyer)
yemmamma ye vintalu (Adi)(kSetra~jna)
manasu ninnedabhayadu (Adi)
shrI mUlAdhAracakra (Adi) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
shrI kamalAmbike (Adi) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
shrI varalakSmi (Adi) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
tyAgarAja mahadhvaja (Adi) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
kAmEshvarE da (Adi) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
shrI abhayAmba (rUpakam) (MuttusvAmi DIkSitar)
endaro mahanubhavulu (Adi) (Tyagaraja)
nAmakusuma (rUpakaM) (Tyagaraja)
yuktamu gadu (mishracApu) (Tyagaraja)
bhAyAmi nandakumAram (Adi) (SvAti TirunAL)
riNa mada dritha (Adi) (SvAti TirunAL)
karuNa ceyvAn (Adi) (Iriyamman Thampi)
maN^gaLam aruL (rUpakam) Papanasam Sivan
rAman edukku (triputa ) (Arunachala Kavi)
pAlaya mAm shrI (Bhadracala Ramadasa)
Vadavari (Adi) (Annamacharya)
vanajAsana vinuta (rUpakam) (Subbaraya Sastri)
sabha darishanam (Adi) (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)
Edukku en mItu (Adi) (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)
maravAmal (Adi) (Gopalakrishna Bharathi)
shrI bhArgavam (Adi) (Muthiah Bhagavathar)
shrI kArtikEya (Adi) (Muthiah Bhagavathar)
shrIpatE kripa seyyar (mishracApu) (Pallavi Sesha Iyer)
kanaka vela karuNAlavAla (Adi) (Kotiswara Iyer)
adhikAramundaruL (Adi) (T.Lakshmanan Pillai)
vEdanAyaka (aTa) (Vedanayakam Pillai)
kAnavEnDAmo (rUpakam) (subrahmanya Bharathi)
ambigApatim (rUpakam) (Periyasami Thuran)
bhAgyalaskmi baramma (Adi) (Purandaradasa)
dharmigu dorayendu rUpakaM) (Purandaradasa)
ninne gati (Adi) (Purandaradasa)
Of these, the song, ” endaro mahAnubhAvulu” has a greater frequency in concert halls. There ares some excellent pallavi expositions in shrI . Also, shrI often appears in the rAgamAlika svaram segments in a pallavi rendition, or more often, in the tAnam portion, when all the five ghana rAgaMs are rendered (either in tAnam, or in the rAgamAlika svara segment). But, being an auspicious rag, shrI is employed in the final piece maN^gaLam singing. Some prefer to sing the shri composition, “bhAgya lakSmi bAramma” and conclude the concert. I am not aware of any tillAna/javali in shrI. The rAgams madhyamAvati, maNiraN^gu, puSpalatika, and sAlagabhairavi are four rAgams closely related to shri. madhyamAvati is an audava‑audava rAgam with notes: sa ri ma pa ni sa; sa ni pa ma ri sa. While it almost resembles shri, the omission of the notes dha and ga in madhyamAvati makes a clear distinction. Hence while rendering madhyamAvati, care should be taken not to touch these notes even slightly. While shri has greater majesty and depth, madhyamAvati has greater number of compositions. maNiraN^gu is another janyam of kharaharapriya with scale sa ri ma pa ni sa; sa ni pa ma ga ri sa. It has the same arohaNam as madhyamAvati, but takes the note ga in avaraohaNam, which is not allowed in madhyamAvati. It omits the dha, which is present in shrI(Shree).
(Courtesy of P. P. Narayanaswami)