Tag Archives: Maqam

مقام The Music Of Azerbaijanمقام Vol-04



History of mugam and stages of development

Every art has its own history of creation, formation and development consisting of definite stages that are interconnected. This can also be attributed to mugam. The history of mugam covers various wide issues. The history of mugam is among the most modern and urgent problems of the contemporary music science. One of the most important aspects in the history of mugam is related to its geographical coverage. The art of mugam that is considered to be Eastern music and eastern culture has its national forms and genres as well as names peculiar of all eastern people. The history of Azerbaijani mugam dates to the ancient periods. As a genre the creation and formation of mugam coincides with the establishment of ancient states and cities. All historical areas of formation of the Azerbaijani people and their living can be considered the geographical area of mugam. All Caucasus people listened and assimilated the art of mugam only as Azerbaijani mugam which was the founder, the main carrier and distributor of the art of mugam in Caucasus region.

The Azerbaijani people had a very rich musical culture in periods before Islam (before the 7th century).
The art of mugam also went through the stages of its creation, formation and a part of the development stages in the pre-Islam period. The art of Mugam mostly formed in the historical period before the 1-4th centuries, in the historical period of Shumer and Midian’s. The main historical feature of that period is that it is the last stage of the pre-Islam history of mugam. As for the history of mugam in the 1-4th centuries, we should take into account that there were two states in the territory of Azerbaijan of that period – Atropatena and Albania.
The culture of these states that has been an integral part of the Azerbaijani culture throughout the history is also interesting in terms of the history of music. The music history of Atropatena and Albania (the name of an ancient republic) is very interesting and these states can be considered the father of the contemporary culture of music. Atropatena located in South Azerbaijan on the southern bank of Araz and Zoroastrianism was its official religion. The followers of this religion were called Mag (mug, mugh-the english definition of word is Magus, wizard). Mugam is believed to originate from this name. Thus, mags (magus, wizards) fulfilled different religious actions accompanying them with a specific music. The analysis of some samples of the music taken from these actions of mags showed that they are very close to the contemporary Azerbaijani music for their melodic and rhythm peculiarities. The people living in Albania located in Azerbaijan’s north practiced Zoroastrianism and Christianity. The religious canons in the Alban churches were accompanied with solo and chorus. This singing has different elements of poly tonality. The Albanian religious songs had much in common with the mugam songs and these songs influenced the further development of Azerbaijani modes (lads).

WBeginning from the 7th century the art of mugam moved to a new stage of its historical development. This stage is mostly connected with Islam. Thus, beginning from the mid 7th century, Islam starts to cover all areas of Atropatena and Albania. Before the 7th century, Arabian art including its music art was not so developed as Azerbaijani. Therefore, Arabs did not hold a destructive approach to the rich professional music of the countries where they spread Islam, including Azerbaijan.
They tried to learn this culture and spread it among themselves. Despite spreading Islam in Azerbaijan in the 7th century, the professional music continued developing in palaces. Though Islam had a definite influence on the art of music especially on mugam it even enriched in the period of Islam. To sing Koran was the main provision and requirement of Islam religion. A strong voice is considered a priority in Koran singing. Koran was sung with the rhythm, intonation and the structure of the Arab language. But those Azerbaijanis who followed Islam sung Koran with the mugam intonation. Thus, Koran singing was much influenced by Azerbaijani mugam. This influence was also observed in Islam traditions and ceremonies, for example, singing azan. Thus, religious songs were performed on the basis of Azerbaijani mugam melodies. In the 7-9th centuries a new genre starts to form in the literature of Azerbaijan.

The formation of the genre of qezel’s strongly influenced the development of Azerbaijan’s art of mugam. Thus, the genre of qezel gradually transformed into a poetic base of Azerbaijani mugam. qezel’s influenced the rhythm features of mugam and turned into a rhythmic basis of mugam. Moreover, qezel’s also had a positive influence on the literary content and emotionality of mugam. qezel’s written in the lyrical, lyric-philosophical and religious terms required the corresponding music performance, performance features and musical characters and this caused a new content and form of the musical language of mugam.

Some scientists believe that Arabian makam and Azerbaijani art of mugam originated from the notion of “magam” of Sufis. Sufi’s had specific ceremonies. Their ceremonies were accompanied by music from the beginning to the end. They called themselves semavis, saying the sense of their living was love for God, and calling their music heavenly. The Sufis music in Azerbaijan was closely connected with the art of mugam. The modes, rhythms and information of mugam, as well as the culmination of characters influenced the Sufi music. The medieval scientists played a great role in the development of Azerbaijan’s mugam science and art of mugam in the 13-14th centuries.
These scientists studied the issues of musical theory and practice in their works. These also included the art of mugam. Safiaddin Urmavi was among the prominent music scientists, composers and singers. He was the first to single out 12 mugams and 6 avazs known in Azerbaijan and specify their mode structure. He showed how modes form through tetra-chords and pent-chords: 12 Mugams are Ushshag, Neva, Busalik, Rast, Esag, Isfahan, Zirafkend, Buzurk, Zangule, Rehavi, Huseyni, Hijazi, Avaz, Gavesht, Gardaniyye, Salmak, Novruz, Maye, Shahnaz. The Azerbaijani modes Urmevi firstly showed in his works were diatonic and octave-structured.

The prominent music scientist, composer, poet Abdulgadir Maraghai who lived in the 14-15th centuries was considered the greatest personality of the medieval music science of the world. He was the first to use the notions of makam and sections. In his works he wrote that there are 12 mugams, 6 avazs and 24 sections and analyzed their mode structures and voice compositions. He widely described every mugam and sections in his works. Developing the mode and rhythm theories of other music scientists, he informed about the rhythmic forms and rules of their performance.

WIn the 16-17th centuries the art of mugam was passing through the development process as a folklore professional music of the palace conditions. In this period a dastgah form starts to develop in the structure and forms of mugam. New colors and shades as well as tesnifs developed in mugam performance. The masters of mugam of Azerbaijan sang gazals written in aruz genre by Nizami, Fizuli, Habibi and Khatai.
The music events were held in most regions of Azerbaijan in the 19th century and mugam was performed at these events. In the 19th century famous French scientist Alexander Duma who attended the ceremony in Shamakhy, wrote in his works about his trip saying he was greatly impressed by mugam that sounded there. Such events held in Azerbaijan were attended by khanendes from Karabakh, Baki and Tebriz which in turn caused the blending of singing traditions of different regions. The prominent composer of the 20th century Uzeyir Hajibeyov brought mugam into opera creating the mugam opera and thus played a great role in making the art of mugam famous in the world. Famous Azeri composer Gara Garayev also made a great contribution to the development of the art of mugam through creating the mugam symphony.


مقام The Music Of Azerbaijan Vol-02 مقام

Azeri Musicians

Jabbar Garyaghdioglu performs “Heyrati” Mugam (Maqam)

(with Gurban Pirimov on Tar and Gylman Salahov on Kamancheh




Gurban Bakhshali oglu Primov (Azerbaijani: Qurban Primov) (October 1880, Abdal Gulabli near Shusha, Karabakh, Azerbaijan  – 29 August 1965, Baku, Azerbaijan) was an Azerbaijani folk musician and tar-player.

He was born in Karabakh, in mountainous village of Abdal-Gülablı  near Shusha, Azerbaijan  then in the Russian Empire. The Primov family had had long lasting musical traditions: Gurban’s great-grandfather Valeh was a famous Karabakhi ashik; and his older brother Aghalar was a saz-player. Deeply in love with folk music, Gurban Primov dropped out of school at age 13 to move to Shusha, then one of the important cultural centres of the Caucasus.

He was introduced to the celebrated musician of the time and the designer of the Azerbaijani tar, Sadigjan, whose apprentice he later became. By 1895 Pirimov was already widely known in Karabakh as a talented musician who worked with some of the most renowned khanandas of the time. In 1905 he met Jabbar Garyagdioglu and Sasha Ohanezashvili on a wedding in Ganja, and for the next 20 years they were performing as a trio. The ensembled successfully toured the Caucasus, Central Asia, and some of the Middle Eastern cities. He accompanied Garyagdioglu on the tar during the recording of mughamats on vinyl in Riga and Warsaw in 1912, and also performed some pieces solo. Together they appeared in the 1916 Azeri film Neft va milyonlar saltanatinda (“In the Realm of Oil and Millions”). Pirimov’s outstanding skills were mentioned by singer Seyid Shushinski who personally witnessed Pirimov’s indefatigable playing during Garyagdioglu’s five-hour performance of one mughamat.

Later in life Pirimov was also a music consultant to prominent composers such as Muslim Magomayev, Reinhold Glière, Fikrat Amirov, and Gara Garayev. In 1930 Primov was recognized as People’s Artist of Azerbaijan. Gurban Primov married to Nabat khanum Aghalar gizi and issued four children: Asgar, Sara, Tamara, Adela.

He continued to perform until his death at age 84. His last concert took place at the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Hall on 10 August 1965, followed by his death 19 days later. He was buried at the Avenue of the Honored Ones Cemetery in Baku.


Folk songs and ashug art, being among the very significant forms of Azerbaijani music art, are considered to appear much later than “mugham”. It is practically impossible to define the time of appearance of mugham, because it has very ancient sources. The creation of mugham is closely connected with definite and immediate feelings. This is the very reason why the word “mugham” has the meaning of time and moment. The first musical “cries” of primitive man appeared in some definite joyful or sorrowful moments of his life. For instance, after a successful or unsuccessful hunt, primitive man feels rejoice or grieve, uttered definite sounds which later became “music”. So, in this way was formulated the notion of joyful and sad music.
Also the role of nature in the appearance of music and especially of mugham was quite significant. The sounds of blowing winds, raging rivers, flashing lightnings, rumbling rain clouds, wild animals and birds, became the primitive music. It was developed to the immortal delight for heart and ears, and was delivered by means of primitive instruments made of wood, stone and leather.
The mugham is considered to be part of not only Azeri musical art; it also exists in near and middle eastern African and Asian musical art. But it should be noted that only in Azerbaijan has mugham reached the highest and most mature level of its development. The reason is that for the performance of mugham a very high timber of voice is needed. This voice timber is the characteristic feature of Azerbaijani people. There is no country in the world where the voice timber of mugham performers is so high and strong as in Azerbaijani. Nowadays the khanendas (mugham performers) from the exhausted, crying and groaning Karabakh, which was occupied by Armenia, fascinate and astonish the whole world by their singing.

One mugham consists of 6,8 or 10 levels. Depending on the area of mugham, it can be performed 1-2 hours without a break. The formation of the complete complex of mugham from ancient times was provided by the works of great mugham performers and musicians. Among them should be mentioned such scientists as Abdulgadir Maragai, Safiyaddin Urmavi ; such mugham performers as Hadji Khuzu, Jabbar Garyaghdi, Mohammed Kechachi oghlu, Meshedi Mohammed Farzaliyev, Zabul Gasim, Seyyid Shushinsky, Khan Shushinsky, Zulfi Adigezalov, hajibaba Huseynov, Fatma Mekhraliyeva, Hagiget Rzayeva, rubaba Muradova, Yagub Mamedov and others.

The heritage of mugham, which has been passed down to us, is developed by modern mugham performers such as Arif Babayev, Janali Akberov, Islam Rzayev, Aghakhan Abdullayev, Alibaba Mamedov, Qadir Rustamov, Alim Gasimov, Sakina Ismaylova, Melekhanum Ayubova and others.
Besides the minor forms of mugham in Azerbaijan we can distinguish 17 main forms:
3 forms of segah – “Segah of Mirza Gusein” “Zabul Segah”  “Kharidg Segah” Then “Rast”, “Bayaty Shiraz” “Chahargah”, “Mahur”, “Orta Mahur”, “Rehab”, “Humayin”, “Shushtar”, “Bayaty Kurd”, “Shahnaz”, “Gatar”, “Shur”, “Dashti”, “Bayaty Gajar”.
Mugham is considered to be an inexhaustible source not only for tesnifs and folk songs, but also for symphonic songs (opera). For instance “Rast” and “Shur” are symphonic mughams.
If in his youth Uzeir Hajibeyov had not paid much attention to the mughams performed by Jabbar Garyaghdy, he might never have created such masterpieces as “Leyli and Mejnun” and “Koroglu”.
All khanendes widely use the poems of classical poets in the performance of mugham; usually they use gazels (Lyrical poems) more than bayatis or goshmas, because the style of gazels is closer to the mugham. At the end of a mugham can also be performed 1-2 bayatis.
Mugham gives the people the irreplaceable calm feeling of alienation (or detachment) from reality and the approach to something spiritual and sublime. Doctors confirm that mugham has a very good influence on the human organism.
In the study and teaching of mugham, Asef Zeynally’s musical college is of great significance.
“The most perfect music of the world is mugham. Mugham is the inexhaustible source for all the music of the world.” – the words of Jean Pierve (the director of film “The Voice of the World”).


Mugams, being the most ancient and the rearest «pearls» of Azerbaijan music culture, are mature creative expression of moral world of people’s wit. Azerbaijan music is based on Mugam. Mugams, which are foundations of our music, are art taste of not only Azerbaijan, but also all of Eastern people. In historical source, there is an information about the existence of great music culture in the states; Shumer, Manna, Midia.

In the X-IX centuries B.C., during the leadership of Midia, around the lake Urmia, the Mugs, being ancient Azerbaijan tribes, living in Mugan, were spreading out their scientific knowledge in palaces, among the people and were involved in music. Nizami Ganjavi, (1141-1209) stating, that the Mugs were musicians, writes in his «Igbalname»: «Singer, play an ancient melody. Play some Mugan melody like the Mugs». According to this, we can say that Mugam melodies first appeared in the territory of Mugan. The music critics of Iran, Arabian countries and also other countries, making investigations of mugam state, that mugam had been widely spread out in Sasani times (III-VII centuries) and mugams were played in the form of «destgah», which means in groups. As the most talented musicians of the time were working in the palaces, that is why mugams were created by these artists there.

Mugams have been the most favorite music of the Turks, the Arabs, Persians, Indians and other peoples, living in the big geographical–administrative territories, for many centuries and in each country mugams improved people’s inherent moral features. Mugams, being a central genre of Eastern traditional music, based on oral traditions, were called differently in the languages of different peoples. But the essence is the same. Azerbaijani called this musical genre as «mugam», Turks and Arabians as «makam», Persians as «destgah», Indians as «paga», Tadjiks and Uzbeks as «makom», Turkmens and Uygurs as «mukam», the Japaneses as «gaganu», Indonesians as «patet», the Kazakhs as «kuy», the Kirghiz as «ky», Pakistani as «khayyal».

Beginning from IX-X centuries, the science of music began its development in the countries of Near and Middle East. The first scientific information about the mugams is given in the poem «Gabusname» by Keykavus. But as the note writings of the mugams, created in the Middle Ages did not come till our time, we can find information about them in the handwritings of Eastern music critics living in the IХ–ХIХ centuries. The founder of Eastern music Science Abu Nasr Mohammed Farabi (865-950) writes his work «Kitab-ul musigi-al-kabir» («Great book about the music»). Abu Ali Ibn Sina’s (980-1037) work called «Risatun fi elm–ul-musigi» (the treatise about music) became the most widespread work. At the beginning of XII century the encyclopedia called «jame–ul-ulum» of Fahraddin Al Razi introduced to music lovers. In the XIII century the outstanding Azerbaijan music critic Safiaddin Urmavi (1230-1294) enriched music science by «Kitab al-advar» (Book of Times) «Sharafiyya» treatise. Mohammed ibn Abubakr Shirvani wrote and completed the book «Ikhvanus-safa music». In the XIV century Mahmud ash-Shirazi and Mohammed ibn Mahmud Al-Amuli also wrote their scientific works on music.

Azerbaijani music scientist of XIV-XV centuries Abdulgadir Maragai (1353-1433) took science of music to the highest level by his works; as: «Megasir ul-alhan» (1413), «Jame–ul-Alhan» (1418), «Favaidi-ashara» («10 advantages»), «Lahniyya» («About melody»), «Kanzul-alhan» (Music Treasury) and «Zubdatyl advar fi sharhi risalatil advar» («Selected melodies in the explanation of music collection»).

In the XVI-XVII centuries new information about mugams was given to music lovers in the treatise «Risalei-musigi» of Najmaddin Kavkabi, in the book of Darvish Ali, who was the musician at the palace of Imam Gulu khan (1611-1642), and in the work called «Risalei-Musigi» of Azerbaijani musician Mirzabay.

In the ХIХ century, Mir Mohsun Navvab, writing about mugam culture, explained the origin of mugams, musical instruments, alikeness of poetry and music in his work called «Vuzuhil-apram» and also wrote about the branches, types and melodies of mugam «destgahs» not only in Azerbaijan, but also in all Eastern countries. He also made schedule of them.

Azerbaijan mugams, being different from pieces of music of this genre, have been enriched in the essence by the talent of conducting of our singers and have been matured in the form. From this point of view, mugams consisting of different melodies, appeared in accordance with definite events, were called differently depending on the essence:
mugams of lad-magam (type) («Shur», «Humayun», and etc), mugams of emotional-figurative structure («Semai-Shams, «Rast», «Dilkash» etc.), mugams of different areas («Arazbari», «Garabagh Shikastasi», etc), mugams of different persons («Shah Khatai», «Khostovani», «Huseyni», etc), mugams of different cities («Bayati Shiraz», «Bayati-Isphahan» , etc), mugams of different nations’ names («Bayati-Kurd», «Bayati-Turk», etc.), mugams called according to the way of conducting («Kesme shikasta», etc) and according to the ordinal numerals («Yegah», «Dugah», «Segah», «Chahargah», «Panjgah»).

In the beginning of ХIХ century Azerbaijan literary sphere entered its new development stage. In Shusha «Majlisi-Faramushan», and «Majlisi-Uns», in Shamakhi «Beytus-Safa», in Baku «Majmausi-Shuara» poetry-musical literary «mejlises» (gatherings) began their activity. Differing from other cities of Azerbaijan, Shusha becomes the cultural center of famous poets, music critics and singers. Singers of marvelous art center –Shusha represented Azerbaijan music not only in their Motherland, but also in other Eastern countries, creating the history of Azeri music. The music talents of Shusha appeared neither in the cities of Caucuses nor The East. Shusha vocal school takes the same position in the history of the East, which Italian vocal school in the history of European music. Shusha was called «Italy of Caucuses».

The names of famous singers, «tar» and «kamancha» players, who eastablished Azerbaijan mugam school in the first beginning of ХIХ century , also being famous in Near and Middle East by their wonderful voices, are given in undergiven tables:

In the first  beginning of ХIХ century the  singers were singing by the accompanying of «tar», «kamancha» and «yastibalaban» (national musical instruments. This group of 4 men consisting of the singer and the players was called group of «sazendes (players)». In the beginning of XIX century the group of 4 players became consisting of 3 persons: singer, tar, kamancha and goshanagara players. The songs of this group of 4 men and triple (group of 3 men) were dedicated mostly to love and female beauty. In accordance with the changes in spirits of people, the way of singing mugam also changed. So, mugam was being sung during 2-3 hours before, but later this time was shortened and became 15-20 minutes.

Beginning from the Middle Ages till the beginning of XX century, mugam was considered to be an art, conducted only by the male singers, but in spite of this fact, beginning from the 20s years, the names of talented female singers, who developed our culture and took it to the pick, are given in undergiven schedule:

The delicacies of poetry, expressing philosophy of life, love to nature, love for all the men, which exists in Azerbaijan mugams – unit of poetry and music, is the most important thing, which makes completeness together with wonderful music melodies. The following outstanding Azeri poets praized mugam in their works: Gatran Tabrizi, Mahsati Ganjavi, Nizami Ganjavi, Falaki Shirvani, Givati Mutarrizi, Khagani Shirvani, Imadaddin Nasimi, Mahammad Fuzuli, Molla Panah Vagif, Gasim bey Zakir, Seyyid Azim Shirvani, Huseyn Razi, Bakhtiyar Vahabzadeh, Aliaga Vahid, Samad Vurgun, Suleyman Rustam.

Daramad: «Daramad» is an instrumental melody widely used in mugam «dastgahs» and it is an introduction part of vocal-instrumental mugams. «Daramad» expresses the features of mugam to which it refers and it is called as the mugam.

Berdasht: «Berdasht» is an instrumental melody written in the genre of oral traditional music. «Berdasht» is widely applied in mugam art. From this point of view, «Berdasht» is an introduction part of instrumental mugam «destgshs».

Reng: «Reng» is played after definite divisions of «destgah» and is called as the mugam it refers to. By nature, «rengs» are divided into those, looking like a dance, a march, and lyric ones. The first type of «reng» is «Diringi».

Diringi: «Diringi» is a melody, less than «reng» and it is more danceable than «reng». It is usually played in divisions or branches of little volume, or finalizes them.

«Reng» and «Diringi», being a piece of music, when played, gives a singer an opportunity for preparing for the next mugam division.

Gushe (branch): Im comparison with division, «Gushe» is a mugam episode of improvisation character, with less volume. Like, divisions, branches also have different names.

Avaz: «Avaz» usually means a completed musical sentence. «Avaz»s have no definite names and they are sung either within divisions or branches. So, a division is made of 5-6 «avaz»s, and a branch is made of 2-3 «avaz»s.

Maye: «Maye» plays a main role in vocal-instrumental and instrumental mugams and it determines their structure by its essence. «Maye» plays a central role in mugam «destgah»s and all the divisions of «destgah» are activate around it. The conductive features of divisions and branches generally depend on «Maye» part.

Tasnif: «Tasnif», has a lyric and dance like character and is sung after the singing of each division of mugam «destgah». Each of tesnifs are sung independently as a complete piece of music.

One of the widely spread genres of  Azerbaijan oral-traditional music are impact mugams. When they are sung, in the ensemble, accompanying the singers, impact instruments are preferred. Impact mugams begin with instrumental introduction of active-emotional character and on the basis of musical parts of this introduction the main melody is played.

The songs, tesnifs, operas, symphonies and other musical genres created by our composers are based on mugam. So, they widely used mugam in their creative activity. The outstanding composer Uzeir Hajubayov composed his operas; «Leyli and Majnun», «Sheykh Sanan», «Rustam and Zohrab», « Koroglu», «Shah Abbas and Khurshid Banu», «Narun and Leyla», «Asli and Karam» on mugams ans at the same time, he wrote his fantasies for national musical instruments orchestra on «Chahargah» and «Shur» mugams. These fantasies are called the same as the 2 mugams. He prepared «Arazbari» mugam for cord orchestra, established new gazal (classic poem)-romance genre, based on Nizami Ganjavi’s gazals «Sensiz (Without you)» and «Sevgili janan (Belowed)». muslim Magomayev in his opera «Shah Ismayil», Zulfugar Hajubayli in his opera «Ashig Garib», Shafiga Akhundova in her opera «Gelin Gayasi» have used mugam melody. Asaf Zeynali applied mugam to chamber instrumental music, also he wrote his work «Mugamsayagi» for violin and piano and «Chahargah» for piano. Fikrat Amirov, when writing «Shur» and «Kurd-Ovshari» symphonic mugams, he kept traditional structure of «Shur» in «Kurd-Ovshari» he used examples of impact mugams. He wrote his «Azerbaijan» capriccio on «Mahur» tasnif. Azerbaijan tasnifs are wonderfully expressed in Fikrat Amirov’s «Gulustan-Bayati Shiraz» symphonic mugams. Composer and conductor Niyazi in his «Rast» symphonic mugam, Suleyman Alasgarov in his «Bayati-Shiraz» symphonic mugam, Jovdet Hajiyev in his «The fourth symphony» and in «Ballada» written for piano, Gara Garayev in his «The third symphony», have used mugam melodies. Chorus, sung in the 3rd part of «Azad» opera of Jahangir Jahangirov is «Chahargah» mugam. He created role of Fuzuli by means of «Rahab» mugam in the introduction of «Fuzuli» cantata.

In his «The Fourth Symphony» and «The Sixth Synphony», Arif Malikov used melodies of mugam destgahs. He also composed his «Love Legend» ballet on «Humayun» mugam. Agshin Alizadeh has professionally used «Shur», «Chahargah», «Segah», «Vilayati» mugams in his «Fourth symphony» called «Mugamvari». Russian composer R. Gliyer in his opera «Shahsanam» used «Arazbari» mugam and 30 Azerbaijan national songs and ashig n songs (national melodies).

Afrasiyab Badalbayli used «Mansuriyye» and «Heyrati» mugams in his ballets «Giz Galasi (Maiden tower)». Soltan Hajibayli in his «Karvan» symphonic work has used musical colourings of impact mugams. Learning and investigating of mugam, which is an oral-traditional mucis of the East, is one of the most important tasks of music critics in the World.

Beginning from the Middle Ages till nowadays, studying this genre of Eastern music culture has become the theme of research of the scientists. A number of articles, research works have been written. The names of these scientists are given below: Al-Kindi, Al-Munajjim, Al-Farabi, Ibn-Sina, S. Urmavi, G.Shirazi, Al-Amuli, Al-Jurjani, Abdulgadir Maragai, Shabaddin Ajami, H. Farter, K..Zaks, R. Derlanjs, Kamal Al-Holan, Ahmad Aminaddin, Mahmud Mukhtar, Mahammad Salahaddin, Yusif Shauki, R. Khaligi, A.N. Vaziri, M. Barkishli, A. Shabani, R. Yekta, Sadaddin Arel, S. Azgi, I.H.Ozkan, Y. Elsner, S.M. Uzdilek, M.Karadeniz, Y. Tura, M. Barzanchi, V. Belyayev, V.Vinogradov, U.Hajibayov, M.S.Ismayilov, E.Abbasova, G.Abdullazadeh, R. Mammadova, R. Zohrabov, I.R.Rajabov, R.Imrani, F.M. Karomatov, T.S.Vizgo, O.Matyakubov and others.

Some of the conferences and symposiums held on international standards concerning Eastern oral-traditional music:

ВII International Music Congress held in 1971 in Moscow in the theme «Tradition and Modernity», III International Tribune of Asian Countries held in Alma-Ata in 1973.

In the I International symposium, held by UNESCO in 1978 in Samargand in the theme: «Traditional music of Near and Middle East Peoples and Modernity», the following Azerbaijani musician scientist took part: E. Abbasova, L.Karagijiyeva, N. Aliyeva, R. Zohrabov, Z. Gafarova, N. Mammadov, A. Eldarova and S.Agayeva. They made interesting reports.

In the II International symposium held in 1983 in Samargand, E. Abbasova, N.Mammadov, S.Gasimova, Z.Safarova, I.Efendiyeva , R. Zohrabov made reports.

Tar player B.Mansurov, kamancha player T.Bakikhanov, singers J.Akbarov and A.Gasimov sang Azeri mugams.

In III International symposium held in 1987 in Samargand, which represented more than 400 musicians, N.Aliyeva, S. Dashdamirova, S.Agayeva, composer E.Mansurov made reports. Our singers A.Babayev, and A. Gasimov, tar players R. Guliyev and A.Abdullayev, kamancha player Sh. Eyvazova were applauded by the audience.

No doubt, that all these music forums will play an important role in studying musical heritage of Eastern Peoples, in strengthening relations between musician scientists. According to the opinion of World musicians, Azerbaijan mugams, which are richer and stronger among mugam musicians in different geographical areas, according to their emotional impression and development level, will become a source of creativity for many composers for many years and will be investigated by musicians. The successes achieved by our singers and ensemble of national musical instruments in foreign countries is the evidence that they are devoted successors of our classic music heritage.
(courtesy of azworld.org)


Mugam also known as Azerbaijani Mugham (Azerbaijani: Muğam; مقام) is one of the many folk musical compositions from Azerbaijan, contrast with Tasnif, Ashugs.  Mugam draws on Iranian-Arabic-Turkish Maqam

It is a highly complex art form that weds classical poetry and musical improvisation in specific local modes. “Mugham” is a modal system. Unlike Western modes, “mugham” modes are associated not only with scales but with an orally transmitted collection of melodies and melodic fragments that performers use in the course of improvisation. “Mugham” is a compound composition of many parts. The choice of a particular mugham and a style of performance fits a specific event. The dramatic unfolding in performance is typically associated with increasing intensity and rising pitches, and a form of poetic-musical communication between performers and initiated listeners.

Three major schools of mugham performance existed from the late 19th and early 20th centuries – the region of Garabagh, Shirvan, and Baku. The town of Shusha (Garabagh) was particularly renowned for this art.

The short selection of Azerbaijani mugham played in balaban, national wind instrument was included on the Voyager Golden Record, attached to the Voyager spacecraft as representing world music, included among many cultural achievements of humanity.

In 2003, UNESCO recognized mugam as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Azerbaijan also has a great tradition of composers and musicians of western classical music. Uzeyir Hajibeyov with his Leili and Majnun created the genre of mugham-opera. Fikret Amirov (1922-1984) was the first Azeri composer symphonic mughams — Shur, Kurd Ovshari, and Gulistan Bayati Shiraz. Azerbaijani composers created a plethora of compositions that fused mugham and traditional European genres. Among those, for example, Vasif Adigozal’s mugham oratorio Shikestesi.[7] Such works are obviously very different from traditional mugham formations but in fact incorporate many mugham idioms. On the level of musicians, there remains a strict separation between classical and “traditional” music in terms of training. Even if the musicians are educated at the same conservatorium they stick to one camp.

In the course of its long history, the people of Azerbaijan have retained their ancient musical tradition. Mugham belongs to the system of modal music and may have derived from Persian musical tradition. The Uighurs in Xinjian (Sinkiang) call this musical development muqam, the Uzbeks and Tajiks call it maqom (or shasmaqom), while Arabs call it maqam and Persians dastgah. In Azerbaijan the word is mugham from Arabic Maqam. It is based on many different modes and tonal scales where different relations between notes and scales are envisaged and developed.
Uzeyir Hajibeyov merged traditional Azerbaijani music styles with Western styles early in 20th century.

The meta-ethnicity and intricate complexity of this music also becomes apparent in the fact that terms such as mugham, maqam, or dastgah, omnipresent in oriental music, can mean one thing in the Turkish tradition, while the same term in the music of Uzbekistan takes on quite another meaning, and yet another in the classical Arabian tradition. So, in one culture mugham may be related to a strictly fixed melodic type, while in another it is only the cadences, the melody endings that are associated with it. In a third culture it may only correspond to a specific type of tone scales.

The genre itself has roots in prayer and lullaby and is passed on from mother to baby in this way. However, there are hundreds of varieties, such as songs similar to war chant.

In the 16-17th centuries the art of mugam was passing through the development process as a folklore professional music of the palace conditions. In this period a dastgah form starts to develop in the structure and forms of mugam. New colors and shades as well as tasnifs developed in mugam performance. The masters of mugam of Azerbaijan sang gazals written in aruz genre by Fizuli, Habibi and Khatai. The music events were held in most regions of Azerbaijan in the 19th century and mugam was performed at these events. In the 19th century famous French scientist Alexandre Dumas who attended the ceremony in Shamakhy, wrote in his works about his trip saying he was greatly impressed by mugam that sounded there.[8] Such events held in Azerbaijan were attended by khanendes from Karabakh, Baku and Tabriz which in turn caused the blending of singing traditions of different regions.

In the early decades of the 20th century, a member of native intelligentisa, Uzeyir Hajibeyov, the author of the first national opera Leili and Majnun, also formulated the theoretical basis of Azerbaijani mugham in his work The Principles of Azerbaijani Folk Music.[ Famous Azerbaijani composer Gara Garayev and Fikrat Amirov also made a great contribution to the development of the art of mugam through creating the mugam symphony.

According to the New York Times, mugham is a symphonic-length suite, full of contrasting sections: unmetered and rhythmic, vocal and instrumental, lingering around a single sustained note or taking up a refrain that could be a dance tune.
The seven main frets

In recent years, Azerbaijan folk music existed within the scope of folk art. The vocal-instrumental forms of folklore contain the elements of polyphony. The peculiarity of folk music clarifies itself firstly with the development of a fret system. It contains seven main frets – rast, shur, segyakh (are especially spread), shushter, bayati-shiraz, chargyakh, khumayun and three collateral kinds – shakhnaz, sarendj, chargyakh in some other form.[12][13] Before, it was considered that each of the frets has its special vivid emotional meaning. Every fret represents a strongly organized scale, possessing a firm tonic prop (maye), and each step of the fret has its melodic function.These include:

  Rast mode is the first mode of main modes which kept its base and root, unchanged its function during the historical period of development. So, rast mugam based on this mode is called “mother of mugams”. Rast mode consists of 1+1+0.5 tone, which is created in three tetra-chords in the result of amalgamation of reach method of the first main tetra-chord.[16] Literaryly, Rast creates courage and cheerfulness at listener. Subgenres of Rast are: Bardasht (with Novruzu-Ravanda), Maye, Ushshag, Huseyni, Vilayati, Dilkesh, Kurdu, Shikasteyi-fars (Khojasta), Erag, Penjgah, Rak-Khorasani, Gerai, space for Rast. Other mugams relating to the Rast are: Mahur, Mahur-Hindi, Orta Mahur, Bayaty-Gajar, Gatar.[17]

Shur is the second mode and consists of 1-0.5-1 tone, which is created in the result of amalgamation of three tetra-chords with reach method of the first tetra-chord. Shur mode is the most used mode in Ashik art. Shur creates joyful lyrical mood at listener.[16] Subgenres of Shur includes: Bardasht, Maye, Salmak, Shur-Shahnaz, Busalik, Bayaty-Turk, Shikasteyi-Fars, Mubarriga, Ashiran, Semai-Shams, Hijaz, Shakh Khatai, Sarenj, Gemengiz, Nishibi-Feraz, space for Shur. Mugams relating to the Shur are: Shahnaz, Sarenj, Arazbary, Osmani, Rahab, Neva.

Segah is the third mode and consists of 0.5-1-1 tone which is created in amalgamation of three tetra-chords with the reach method. Segah mugam associated with love, romantic feelings at listener.[16] Subgenres of Segah includes: egah Zabul-Segah-Bardasht, Maye, Muya, Manandi-Mukhalif, Segah, high-pitched tone Zabul, Manandi-Hisar (in high-pitched tone), Manandi-Mukhalif (in high-pitched tone), Ashig-Kush, Mubarriga, Zabul, space for Segah, Kharij Segah-Bardasht, Maye, Takhtigah, Mubarriga, Manandi-Hisar, Manandi-Mukhalif, high-pitched tone Segah, space for Kharij Segah. Other mugams relating to the Segah are: Hashym Segah-sol, Kharij Segah-si, Mirza-Huseyn-lya, Orta Segah-mi, Zabul Segah.

Shushtar is the fourth and the smallest mode according to its amount of sounds. Sound line is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with different method. It has eight membranes and consists of 0.5-1-0.5 tone. In Shushtar mode the third membrane is the completive tone, the fourth membrane is Maye. It creates deeply sad feelings at listener.[16] Subgenres of Segah includes: Amiri, Shushtar, Masnavi, Movlavi, Tarkib, space for Shushtar. Other mugams relating to the Mugham are: Ovshary, Heydari.[17]
* Chahargah is the fifth and the longest mode according to the amount of sounds. It consists of eleven membranes. Three tetra-chords are amalgamated with two methods. The first and the second tetra-chords are amalgamated with the first method. The second and the third tetra-chords are amalgamated with different method. Tetra-chords are 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone structural. Chahargah mode is represented in two kinds in Uzeyir Hajibeyov’s composition.[16] It creates at listener excitement and passion. Subgenres of Chahargah are: Bardasht, Maye, Bali-Kabutar, Djovhari, Basta-Nigar, Hisar, Mualif, Garra, Mukhalif, Ouj Mukhalif, Maghlub, Mansuriyya, Uzzal, space for Chahargah.
* Bayaty-Shiraz is the sixth mode and consists of 1-1-0.5 tone, which is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with the third method. It consists of nine membranes. There passes membrane among the tetra-chords. It creates melancholic feelings at listener.[16] Subgenres of Bayaty-Shiraz are: Bardasht, Isfahanak, Maye, Gardaniyye, Nishibi-Faraz, Bayaty-Isfahan, Khums-Ravan, high-ptched tone Bayaty-Shiraz, Abulchap, Khaveran, Uzzal, Shikasteyi-Fars, Dilruba, space.[17]
* Humayun is the seventh mode and consists of 0.5+1.5+0.5 tone, which is created in amalgamation of two tetra-chords with the fourth method. It is able to get sound line of Shushtar mode by changing the tetra-chords’ places in Humayun mode. So, these two modes’ structures are close to each other. It creates deeply mournful feelings at listener.[16] Subgenres of Humayun are: Bardasht, Humayun, Baxtiyari, Feili, Boyuk Masnavi, Movlavi, Shushtar, Tarkib, Uzzal or Bidad, Kichik Masnavi, space.


Part of the confusion arises from the fact that the term itself can have two different, if related meanings. The famous Azeri composer Gara Garayev has the following explanation: “The expression mugham is used in two senses in the folk music of Azerbaijan. On the one hand the word mugham describes the same thing as the term lad [Russian for key, mode, scale]. An analysis of Azeri songs, dances and other folk-music forms show that they are always constructed according to one [of these] modes. On the other hand the term mugham refers to an individual, multi-movement form. This form combines elements of a suite and a rhapsody, is symphonic in nature, and has its own set of structural rules. In particular one should observe that the suite-rhapsody-mugham is constructed according to one particular mode-mugham and is subject to all of the particular requirements of this mode.” (Sovetskaya Muzyka 1949:3). Azerbaijani conservatory throughout the 20th century produced significant scholars and scholarship. Among them, Rena Mamedova explored the philosophical content of mugham, as an Azeri “formula of creative thinking”.[18] Elkhan Babayev wrote extensively on rhythmic aspect of mugham performance.[19] The native scholars continued and expanded Hajibeyov’s analysis of mugham.

Mugham describes a specific type of musical composition and performance, which is hard to grasp with western concepts of music in another respect: for one, mugham composition is improvisational in nature. At the same time it follows exact rules. Furthermore, in the case of a suite-rhapsody-mugham the concept of improvisation is not really an accurate one, since the artistic imagination of the performers is based on a strict foundation of principles determined by the respective mode. The performance of mugams does therefore not present an amorphous and spontaneous, impulsive improvisation.
Azerbaijan Mugham Theatre in Baku.

With respect to the concept of improvisation, mugham music is often put in relation to jazz, a comparison that is accurate to a certain point only. Although mugham does allow for a wide margin of interpretation, an equation with jazz is oversimplified, since it fails to account for the different kinds of improvisation for different Mugam modes. The performance of a certain mugham may last for hours. (For the uninitiated listener it is close to impossible to know whether a musician is actually improvising or playing a prearranged composition.) Furthermore, as Garayev stresses, mugham music has a symphonic character.

The songs are often based on the medieval and modern poetry of Azerbaijan, and although love is a common topic in these poems, to the uninitiated ear many of the intricacies and allusions are lost. For one, the poems do not primarily deal with worldly love but with the mystical love for god. Yet, strictly speaking, this is still secular music/poetry, as opposed to, say, Sufism.[21] Nevertheless, mugham composition is designed very similarly to Sufism in that it seeks to achieve ascension from a lower level of awareness to a transcendental union with god. It is a spiritual search for god.

(courtesy open-source)


Seyid Shushinski Ensemble



Art Music Al-maqam al-‘iraqi




Genres of Secular Art Music Al-maqam al-‘iraqi

The maqam al-‘iraqi is considered the most noble and perfect form of the maqam. As the name implies, it is native to Iraq; it has been known for approximately four hundred years in Baghdad, Mosul, and Kirkuk. The maqam al-‘iraqi has been passed on orally through the Iraqi masters of the maqam, who cultivate the form especially in Baghdad. The maqam is performed by a singer (qari’) and three instrumentalists playing santur (box zither), juzah (spike fiddle), and tablah or dunbak (goblet drum). Sometimes a fourth instrument, a riqq (tambourine), also joins in. Jalghi baghdadi is the name of this ensemble, al-maqam al-‘iraqi the name of the musical genre. At the center of a maqam al-‘iraqi is a sung poem written either in one of the sixteen meters of classical Arabic or in Iraqi dialect. In the latter case, the poem is called zuhayri.
A maqam al-`iraqi performance usually begins with the tahrir, comprising one or more vocal passages that either have no text or consist of Arabic, Persian, or Turkish words (akh-khayya, yar yar, aman). The tahrir presents the nucleus of the maqam and establishes its emotional content. Following the introductory passages, the singer and instrumentalists alternately improvise rhythmically free melodic passages through increasingly higher tone levels. In some maqamat, the tahrir is preceded by an instrumental introduction of fixed meter. At times it is completely replaced by a badwah, a vocal introduction in which short and long tones are juxtaposed by the singer in alternately high and low registers.

Jalghi baghdadi ensemble, Iraq. Photo: H. H. Touma.
As a rule, the first tone level to be presented highlights the beginning tone of the chosen maqam row. Then, one by one, the other phases and tone levels of the maqam are realized. The highest tone level marks the climax of the performance and is immediately followed by the taslum, a descending melodic passage that leads directly to the finalis of the maqam row.
Maqamat such as the bayat and husayni are presented without the rhythmic accompaniment of percussion instruments, whereas performances of maqamat such as the ibrahimi and nawa always have rhythmic accompaniment. The patterns played by the goblet drum or frame drum sound continuously from beginning to end, as in the maqam sikah, or are only intermittently heard, as in the maqamat rast and saba. The wazn yugrig whose rhythmic pattern is organized as follows:

accompanies the maqam jabburi with the maqam row:

whereas the wazn wandah with the following pattern:

belongs to the maqam urfah with the maqam row:

There is no correspondence between the free rhythmic-temporal organization of the singer’s improvised melodic line and the regular rhythmic organization of the accompaniment.
A complete maqam concert, called a fasl, is composed of a number of maqam realizations whose sequence is fixed. The fasl is named after the first maqam presented. The Arabian repertoire of the maqam al-‘iraqi includes five fusul (plural of fasl), namely, bayat, hijaz, rast, nawa, and husayni.
At the end of each individual maqam presentation within a fasl, the ensemble sings a song of fixed meter (bastah) to give the singer a chance to rest before presenting the next maqam. After all the maqamat of a fasl have been presented, the entire ensemble takes a long break before beginning the next fasl.
The performance of a fasl lasts three to four hours. In the past, several fusul were performed in one evening. Al- maqam al-‘iraqi music was performed in a more private setting at the local haunts of famous maqam singers during festive events or on a certain evening of the month, sometimes also the night before a holiday. Alcoholic drinks were served during the performance, as long as it didn’t take place during Ramadan, the month of fasting. Today the “local haunt” of the maqam singer is in front of a radio microphone or television camera. A great maqam singer is also looked up to as an authority on the subject of the maqam al-‘iraqi. His musical talent is evidenced first and foremost through his mastery of the entire maqam al-‘iraqi repertoire and secondly in his ability to give an especially distinctive rendition of a maqam or several maqamat.
The musical tradition of the maqam al-‘iraqi has been passed down orally by the great masters of the maqam in an unbroken chain of transmission leading up to the present. The oldest maqam singer whose biographical data are known to us is Muller Hasan Babujidji (ca. 1760-1840), who counted the famous Rahmallah Shiltagh (1799-1840) among his students. Shiltagh was of Kurdish or Turkish extraction and was regarded as one of the greatest maqam singers of the nineteenth century. He was instrumental in the development and propagation of the maqam al-‘iraqi. After his beloved, an Armenian named Ya’qub, left him and emigrated to Tiflis, he created a new maqam, the maqam tiflis, which is still performed today. Legend has it that Rahmallah Shiltagh died just as he reached the highest phase of the maqam ibrahimi, on the tone jawab rast (C), when an old wound burst open from the exertion.

An entire generation of maqam singers looked up to Rahmallah Shiltagh, among them Ahmad Zaydan and Muller ‘Uthman al-Mawsili. Ahmad Zaydan (1833-1912) also created new maqamat and developed new forms of the tahrir and badwah introductions. A number of twentieth-century maqam singers, including Rashid Qandarji (d. 1945) and ‘Abbas Shaykhali, owe their fame and musical ability to him and the school that he founded. Mulla ‘Uthman al-Mawsili (1845-1923) demonstrated his exceptional artistry in the rendition of religious song traditions as well. His performances fascinated audiences in Baghdad as well as in Istanbul, in Damascus as well as in Cairo, where the singer, who had in the meantime become blind, was often wont to appear. Included among the great maqam al-‘iraqi singers of today are Muhammad Qabbanji (b. 1901-1989), Haj Hashim ar-Rajab (b. 1920), Yusuf ‘Umar (1918-1986), Majid Rashid (b. 1915), ‘Abbas al-Qassam (b. 1917), and Husayn Ismail (b. 1952).
Analysis of a Maqam al-‘Iraqi Performance in the Maqam Mansuri
The example presented here is performed by the jalghi baghdadi ensemble of the Radio Station in Baghdad . The singer Yusuf ‘ Umar recites a love poem written in classical Arabic with four five-line stanzas following the rhyme scheme:
The first line of the poem reads: ya yusufa l-husn, fika assabbu qadima (“Yusuf, thou beautiful! For a long time I have been in love with you.”). The drummers enter with the wazn samah, which consists of thirty-six beats, later changing over to the wazn yugrig, with twelve beats.
The mansuri is the second maqam of the fasl ar-rast and is presented immediately after the maqam rast itself. The mansuri maqam row reads as follows:

Following the mansuri are the maqamat hijaz shitani, jab-buri, and khanabat. Whereas the maqam rast has the tone c as its finalis, the next two maqamat, mansuri and hijaz shitani, have their cadence on g, and the maqam khanabat and jabburi lead to the finalis d. The riqq and darabukkah players perform throughout most of the fasl; only a portion of the maqam rast has no rhythmic accompaniment. Whereas the poems for four of the five maqamat are written in classical Arabic, a colloquial zuhayri poem is sung to the maqam hijaz shitani.
This particular maqam rendition of the mansuri lasts fifteen minutes and encompasses eighteen musical structural sections (see the transcription on pages 61-67). The performance begins with an instrumental piece of fixed meter in the wazn samah, which consists of thirty-six beats and is repeated two times. Already in this first section, all seven tones of the maqam row are sounded, and the characteristic structural intervals of the mansuri are immediately accessible to the listener. These intervals include the diminished fourth g-6, the medium second g-a(half-flat) or a(half-flat)-b(flat), the augmented second d’-cflat and not least, the major whole tone f-g. In this opening section, the tone g, the first tone of the maqam row, is strongly accented. At this point in time, the first tone level of the maqam performance has also already been realized on g.
The following musical sections can be distinguished:
1. The performance begins with an instrumental introduction in the wazn samah.

Instrumental melodic passage in the wazn samah.
2. Next, the soloist, the qari’ al- maqam, enters with the tahrir section (0′ 59”). He utilizes the tonal area above the melodic axis g, g-6, as well as the tonal area below that same axis, g-d.

3. The fixed-meter instrumental opening section is repeated (1′ 36”).

4. The first two lines of the first five-line stanza are sung, whereby the singer elaborates upon a selection of the tones that were presented in the tahrir (2′ 10”).

First stanza (first and second lines of verse).
5. The fixed-meter instrumental opening section is repeated again (2′ 40″).

6. The singer develops a tone level on c and emphasizes the tonal area c’-g. It is within this tonal area that the remaining three lines of the first stanza of poetry are presented-beginning in the maqam bayat and ending in the maqam mansuri. In the mansuri section, a tone level on g’ later comes to the fore and the singer focuses on the tonal area c6′-g (3′ 09″).

The first word of the third line of verse, third, fourth, and fifth lines of verse.
7. The spike fiddle, juzah, begins with a melodic passage that prepares a tone level on c’ and then musically establishes the maqam mansuri (3′ 54”). The singer presents the entire second stanza of poetry on the tone level g and, in so doing, emphasizes the structural interval f-g, the tonal area c’-g and the tone level c’. At the same time he shifts from the maqam bayati to the maqam mansuri. Thus, here too, the stanza of poetry ends in the maqam mansuri. This same process was previously observed in the sixth section.

Second stanza: [1] Ay and first word of first line of verse. [2] First through fifth lines of verse.
8. The fixed-meter instrumental opening section is repeated again (6′ 21″).

9. The entire third stanza of the poem is sung (6′ 45”). In its tonal range, its tone-level structures, and its tonal-spatial emphasis, this section is similar to section seven.

Third stanza: [1] First and second lines of verse. [2] Third line of verse. [3] Fourth and fifth lines of verse.
10. The tone levels built on g and c’ are presented anew. At the same time, the first four lines of the fourth stanza of poetry are sung (7′ 46″).

Fourth stanza: [1] Ay. [2] First and second lines of verse. [3] Third and fourth lines of verse aman. [4] Bidadim.
11. An instrumental intermezzo is performed (9′ 28″) to rhythmic accompaniment in the wazn yugrig (twelve beats). This is a fixed-meter melodic passage that stands in certain contrast to the succeeding free-meter section. The tone levels d and d-g are emphasized.

Instrumental melodic passage in the wazn yugrig.
12. The fourth stanza of poetry is sung again. In this twelfth section, the maqam performance reaches its first climax (9′ 55”). This phase, designated as sayhah, is the first to be presented in a high register. The singer develops a tone level on g’ as well as the tonal areas g’-d’ and a’-g’. This is in fact the highest tone level of the maqam mansuri altogether. At this point, lines four and five of the fourth stanza of poetry are presented.

First sayhah (mayanah): [1] Ay way. [2] Fourth line of verse. [3] Fifth line of verse of the fourth stanza.
13. The ensemble strikes up the so-called mathnawi, a fixed-meter instrumental piece that presents the tone level c’ in the tonal region of f- 6′-d’-b- a (11′ 03″).

Mathnawi (instrumental intermezzo).
14. The tone material of the mathnawi section is developed further-here, however, in non-metered form. The fourth stanza of poetry is presented as a whole (11′ 23”).

Fourth stanza: [1] First through fifth lines of verse. [2] Aman bidadim.
15. A repeat of the head from section eleven in the wazn yugrig follows (12’25”).

Head of the instrumental intermezzo in the wazn yugrig.
16. This passage is immediately succeeded by the second musical climax of the maqam performance, the second mayanah (sayhah) phase in the upper register (12’33”). The text sung is the same that was heard together with the first mayanah phase, namely the fourth and fifth lines of stanza four. Whereas that one ended on g in the maqam mansuri, this one concludes with the words amdn, aman on d’.

Second sayhah (mayanah): Fourth and fifth lines of verse of the fourth stanza.
17. The wazn yugrig returns with a vocal passage in which the tonal area d’-g is developed (13′ 16”). At this point, the singer resorts to Persian words that do not belong to the actual poem. In place of the Persian jurdam jun babi (“My soul”), however, the Arabian ma tadrun and maftun (“Don’t you see how enchanted I am”) can also appear. The musicians call this section mathlath or mathlathah (triangle).

18. The closing section presents the third and last mayanah (sayhah) on g'(14’04”). The performance of the maqam man-sun finally concludes with a descending melodic line c(flat)’-b(flat)-a(half-flat)-g, the so-called taslim (taslum), which ends on the maqam’s finalis, g.

Final sayhah (mayanah) and taslim (taslurn).

20 February 2009 – Habib Toma

Please note also :http://www.safaafir.com/index.htm