Kashmir in Ancient Sanskrit Literature
by Dr. B. N. Kalla
ACCORDING to the Nilmat Purana, the land of Kashmir was occupied by a vast lake called “Satisara”. Modern geological observations have supported this legendary view. On the basis of this fact, the word “Kashmir” is derived from Sanskrit “Kashyapa + Mira” which means the sea lake or the mountain of sage Kashyapa. Kashyapa was the originator of Kashmir. In Kashmiri, it is called “Kasheer” and “Kashmir” in the Indian languages. Phonetically, “m” is eroded here as we find erosion in the word “Samudra” (ocean). “Samudra” changes into the form of “Sadur” (derived from Sanskrit Samudra in the Kashmiri language and “Samandra” in the Indian languages. “M” is retained in Hindi, Urdu, etc. but not in Kashmiri. Thus “Kashyapa + Mira” = Kashmir in the Indian languages other than Kashmiri and “Kasheer” in Kashmiri. Mir in English means the sea as Mariner in Latin Marinus (more- sea).
The name of Kashmir does not occur in the Vedic literature. In the “Nadi Sukta” of Rig Veda, there is a hymn which mentions the name of Vitasta (in Kashmiri Veth and modern Jhelum).
Among the grammarians, the earliest referenee to Kashmir is found in Panini’s (500 B.C.) “Ashtadhayi” and in Patanjali’s great commentary on it. There the term “Kashmir” and its derivation “Kashmira” are stated as the name of the country and its inhabitants, respectively.
Among the epics, we find the name of “Kashmir” in the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. The Mahabharata refers in several passages to “Kashmir” and their king, but in a way which merely indicates that the valley was situated in the hilly regions to the north of India. Similarly, some of the Puranas refer to Kashmir in the list of northern nations. The earliest Sanskrit literature of the valley so far known is the Nilmat Purana. According to the opinion of Dr.Johann Georg Bühler , a famous German Indologist: “It is a real mine of information regarding the sacred places of Kashmir and their legends”. Besides, the reference to worships prescribed by “Nila” and observed by the people, the work dilates upon such various topics as the Principal Nagas or sacred springs of Kashmir, the origin of the “Mahapadamsara” (present Wular Lake), places dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu, the sacred river confluences and lakes, the chief pilgrimages of the land and in the end upon the sanctity of the Vitasta.
Varahmihra (C.A.D. 500), in his Brahtsamhita, includes the Kashmiras in the north-eastern division of the other tribes who lived in this region. He mentions the Abhisaras, Daradas, Darvas, Khashas, Kiras, etc., the tribes which are known from other sources to have inhabited Kashmir and its neighbouring regions in historical periods. Harasha, a famous poet (7th Century A.D.), in his “Ratnavali” (drama), refers to the saffron of the Kashmira country, which was best of all types of saffrons, both in colour and in scent.
Very useful information
The Nilmat Purana describes the tribes as Nagas, Pishachas, Darvas, Abhisaras, Gandharas, Shakas, Khashas, Mundavas, Madaras, Yavanas, etc. In the Atharvasamhita, we find mention of some northern tribes like the Bahlikas, Mahavarshas, Gandharis and Mujavats. The Brahmnas and the Upnishdas refer to some of the tribes who lived in the north-west, such as the Gandharas, Kekyas, Madaras and Ambashthas.
Kshemendra, the polyhister, in his work, namely “Samyamatrika”, furnishes us with some useful information about the topographical details of his country. His heroine, Kankali travels through the length and breadth of Kashmir. To the poet we owe the first reference to “Pirpanchal” route (Panchadhara). After Kshemendra, Somdeva, the author of the Kathasaritsagar, describes Kashmir as a region in the south of the Himalayas by the waters of the Vitasta. He mentions some of the holy sites of the valley, such as Vijayakshetra, Nandikshetra, Varahkshetra and Uttarmansa and the town of Hiranypura.
The temple of Shivavijayesha or Vijayeshwara, since ancient times one of the most famous shrines of the valley, has given its name to the town in which it was situated, Vijayeshwara, the modern Vijabror 75¡9′ long, 33¡48′ lat. “Bror” in Kashmiri means God, a derivative of Sanskrit Bhattaraka, corresponding to Ishvara.
The name, Nandikshetra, is given by the Nilmata, the Nandikshetra and Harmukta Mahatmyas to a high alpine valley at the foot of the east glaciers of the Harmukh peaks which contains the sacred Kalodakalake, popularly known as Nundkol. The Nanikshetra includes the ncighbouring site of Bhuteshwara or Buthsher, in the Kankanai valley below Nandkol.
Varahkshetra is modern Baramulla.
Uttarmansa is meant the sacred Ganga lake situated below the eastern glaciers of Mount Harmukh and popularly known as Gangabal.
Hiranypura, the town founded by Hranyaksha at Ranyal, a village situated circ. 74¡52 long. 34¡12 lat. close to the high road which leads from Srinagar to Ganderbal and the Sindh Valley.
Bilhana, the contemporary of Kalhana, lived during the reigns of King Kalsha and Harsha. He also left an account of his native valley. In his Vikramandekadeva Charita, he gives us a vivid picture of the Kashmirian capital and the village of Khonomusha (present Khonmoh) where he took birth. His account, apart from its poetic beauties, is full of local details. In addition to it, he has given the description of the language of his time. As per his version, Sanskrit and hakrit were in use like their mother-tongue.
For the history, as well as for the early geography of the valley, Kalhana’s Rajtarangini is a very important historical document. In the first Taranga of his work, he gives us an account of the legends relating to the creation of Kashmir and its sacred river, the Vitasta, and refers, besides, to the most famous of the many Tirthas in which Kashmir was abundant. For the historical geography of Kashmir is the mass of incidental references of topographical interest scattered throughout his work.
Ancient Kashmir was really rich in holy places and the objects of pilgrimages were planted throughout the valley. According to the Rajtarangini, Kashmir was a country where there was not a space as large as a grain of sesamum without a Tirtha. The springs (Naag in Kashmiri), which had their tutelary deities in the form of Nagas, the streams and the rivers, in particular sacred legends attached to each of them, innumerable places connected with the worship of various gods and goddesses – all these and many more have been frequently mentioned by Kalhana. They have some topographical importance as they enable us to trace with more or less certainty the early history of most of the popular places of pilgrims visited up to present day. The marvellous accuracy of Kalhana’s topographical knowledge about some of the Tirthas tends to show that he visited them personally.
A number of feferences made by Kalhana regarding the origin of towns, cities, villages, estates and shrines are also of topographical importance. His knowledge about the birth of these towns and shrines seems to have been gathered from the inscriptions, recording the consecration of temples and grants of land by former kings.
The system of nomenclature followed in ancient Kashmir preserved a genuine tradition regarding their founder. In the cases of towns and cities, the appellation “Pura” is attached to the name of the founder. In the cases of religious structures, terms indicating the deity or the object to which the building was dedicated follow.
The notices for the foundations of the towns, etc. made by Kalhana, are sometimes accompanied by accurate description of the sites chosen and of structures connected with them. Mention may be made in this connection about his descriptions of the towns of Pravarapura, Parihaspura and Jayapura Dwarvati. It is Kalhana’s accurate dcscription which alone has helped future scholars to idenlify some of the ruined sites of present times with the famed cities of the past. The seventh and eighth Tarangas of Rajtarangini are full and elaborate with detailed topographical intormation. Kalhana, incidentally, tells us so much about the various localities connected with those events – we can clearly trace them from the map. His topographical exactness is strikingly revealed from such accounts as the regulation of the waters of the Vitasta by Suyya, the sieges of Shrinagar under Sussala, the battle on the Gopadari hill in the same period, the blockade of Lohara and the siege of the Shirahshila castle.
Description of Kashmir
The poet, Mankha, was a contemporary of Kalhana. In the third canto of his work – Shrikanthacharita – he gives an account of Pravarpura, the capital of Kashmir.
Among other texts of topographical interest, mention may be made of Haracharitachintamani of Jayadratha. Jayadratha belonged to the end of the 12th century AD or the beginning of the 13th century AD. In his 32 cantos, he deals with a number of legends connected with Shiva and his Avatars Of these, eight legends are centred round well-known Kashmirian Tirthas and afford the author an opportunity of describing various sacred sites of Kashmir, connected directly or indirectly with them. Jayadratha’s detailed description shows the gradual development of legends connected with different places of pilgrimage since the days of Kalhana.
The numerous Mahatmyas of Kashmir are also interesting sources for early historical geography. Thus the fole of Mahatmyas in describing the topography of the valley cannot be ruled out. They give us a good intormation regarding the ancient nomenclature of Kashmir. Among the 51 Mahatmyas, the Vitasta Mahatmya is a big one which is divided into 35 Patalas. They generally set forth the different legends connected with various places of pilgrimage, the merit to be appeared by their visits and the rites to be performed in each of the sites. They contain many early materials and local traditions and are thus vaiuahle for a systemalic study of the old topography of the valley.
1. The Nilamat Purana Vol I; Dr. Ved Kumari
2. Early History and Culture of Kashmir: Dr Sunil Chandra Ray
3. Panini’s Ashtadhyayi (Ganapatha)
4. Rajtarangini’s English (translation): M. A. Stein.
5. Kashir Dictionary. vol IV, published hy Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture & Languages.
The author has given an etymology of 40,000 words of Kashmiri language up to the last volume – Vol VII of Kashmiri Dictionary published by Jammu and Kashmir Cultural Academy, Srinagar.
6. Webster’s Encyclopaedia Dictionary of the English Language.
A Sanskrit scholar and linguist, Dr. Kala is presently with the Department of Sanskrit, Delhi University.
By Arthur A. MacDonell
Of Corpus Chris
Kashmiri Language Culture and Linguistics
1. Introduction 2. Genealogical Classification and Dialect Survey 3. Phonetics and Phonology 4. Grammars and Grammatical Studies 5. Sociolinguistics 6. Lexicography 7. Socio-cultural and Historical Studies 8. Folklore 9. Literature References Index 1. Introduction An annotated bibliography of the available source materials in a language is an important aid for a researcher. in recent years, there has been an increasing interest in preparation of different types of bibliographies in languages. No detailed bibliography was available for Kashmiri for a long period of time. Schmidt and Koul (1983) have compiled Kohitani to Kashmiri: An Annotated Bibliography of Dardic languages which includes bibliographical references of the available source materials in Shina, Kashmiri and other languages. Since it is developed to different languages of Dardic Group of languages, it has limited references related to Kashmiri. It is out of print now. This annotated bibliography contains bibliographical references of all prominent works on Kashmiri language, linguistics, culture and literature which are available from the 19th century onwards. Serious research work on Kashmiri language, and linguistics commenced around the end of nineteenth century. A number of European as well as Indian scholars have worked on Kashmiri at different linguistic levels: phonetics and phonology, morphology and syntax, semantics, lexicon etc. Research work has been done in the areas of history, culture, folklore and literature as well. With an increasing interest in the teaching and learning of Kashmiri as a second/ foreign language, various language teaching courses have also been produced. The bibliography is classified into eight major subjects. A review of the available materials is presented in the beginning of each chapter. Following are the subject heads: 1. Genealogical Classification and Dialects Survey 2. Phonetics and Phonology 3. Grammar and Grammatical Studies 4. Sociolinguistics 5. Lexicography 6. Socio-culture and Historical Studies 7. Folklore 8. Literature All the entries start with author’s name followed by year of publication, title, name, place of publication and name of publishers. In case of journals the name of the journal, volume and issue numbers are given. The information about articles written in Kashmiri, Urdu, Hindi have been collected from different journals and edited books. The titles of Kashmiri, Hindi-Urdu articles and books have been translated into English and given in parentheses. All Kashmiri, Hindi and Urdu entries have been transcribed into Roman. Each major entry is followed by annotation. The annotation provides general information on the subject of the title. Wherever exact dates of publication are not available, information regarding the dates has been left out. I have also incorporated some unpublished dissertations which have come to my notice. I have listed each entry in full with its annotation, if any, under its primary subject heading. Other subjects treated in the work are also indicated. I have left those articles un-annotated whose content is apparent from the title itself. The bibliography has been compiled keeping in view the need of students, researchers, teachers and librarians. This will be useful especially for those researchers who need information regarding such resource materials pertinent to their research. The listing of articles, books and dissertations under different classified subjects may be helpful to obtain up to date information of the studies related to different aspects of Kashmiri language, linguistics, culture and literature. The bibliographical reference may help in avoiding duplication of work by the researchers. The bibliographical reference will be useful to the librarians for collecting the source materials on different subjects. The librarians and supervisors can provide necessary information to researchers to secure data on specific subjects. 1. Genealogical Classification and Dialect Survey The Kashmiri language is primarily spoken in the Kashmiri valley of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India. It is called .. k:shur or kshir zaba:n by its native speakers and the valley is called kshi:r. As per the census figures of 1981 there were 30,76,398 native speakers of the language. No census was conducted in 1991. The issue related to the origin or genealogical classification of Kashmiri has been discussed at length. Grierson has placed Kashmiri under the Dardic group of languages. He has classified Dardic languages under three major groups: 1. The Kafir Group, 2. The Khowar or Chitrali Group, and 3. The Dard Group. According to his classification, the Dard Group includes Shina, Kashmiri, Kashtawari, Poguli, Siraji, Rambai, and Kohistani – the last comprising Garwi, Torwali and Maiya. Grierson considers the Dardic languages to be sub-family of the Aryan languages “neither of Indian nor of Iranian origin, but (forming) a third branch of Aryan stock, which separated from the parent stem after the branching forth of original of the Indian languages, but before the Iranian languages had developed all their peculiar characteristics” (1906:4). He has further observed that ‘Dardic’ is only a geographical convention. Morgenstierne (1961) has placed Kashmiri under the Dardic Group of Indo- Aryan languages along with Kashtawari and other dialects which are strongly influenced by Dogri. Fussman (1972) has based his work on that Morgenstierne’s classification. He has also emphasized that the Dardic is a geographical and not a linguistic expression. It is not in the absence of reliable comparative data about Dardic languages, a geographic or ethnographic label ‘Dardic’ is frequently used to identity a group of languages or dialects. According to Chaterjee (1963:256) Kashmiri has developed like other Indo-Aryan languages out of the Indo-European family of languages and is to be considered as a branch of Indo-Aryan like Hindi, Punjabi etc. This option is held by other scholars as well. well. The classification of Dardic languages has been reviewed in some works (Kachru 1969, Strand 1973, Koul and Schmidt 1984) with different purposes in mind. Kachru points out linguistic characteristics of Kashmiri. Strand presents his observations on Kafir languages. Koul and Schmidt have reviewed the literature on the classification of Dardic languages and have investigated the linguistic characteristics or features of the languages with special reference to Kashmiri and Shina. There has been little linguistically oriented dialect research on Kashmiri so far. There are two types of dialects: (a) Regional dialects, and (b) Social dialects. Regional Dialects are of two types: (1) those regional dialects or variations which are spoken within the valley of Kashmiri, and those which are spoken in the regions outside the valley of Kashmiri. Kashmiri speaking areas in the valley of Kashmir is divided into three regions: (1) Maraz (southern and south eastern region), (2) Kamraz (northern and north-west region, and (3) Srinagar and its neighboring areas. There are some minor linguistic variations in Kashmiri spoken in these areas. The main variations being phonological, and in the use of certain vocabulary items. Some of the main characteristics of those speech variations are as follows: 1. Kashmiri spoken in Maraz area retain the flap/r,/ which is replaced by /r/ in Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar. 2. The progressive or Indefinite aspect suffix -an is added to the verb roots in Kashmiri spoken in Maraz, which is replaced by -a:n in another two varieties. 3. Kashmiri spoken in Kamraz distinguishes itself from the variety spoken in Maraz as well as Srinagar mainly use of intonation and stress. 4. A number of vocabulary items are different in Kashmiri spoken in the above three regions. All the above linguistics variations are not very significant. Kashmiri spoken in the three regions is not only mutually intelligible, but quite homogeneous. These dialectical variations can be termed as different styles of the same speech. Since Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar has gained some social prestige, very frequently style switching takes place from Marazi or Kamrazi styles to the style of speech spoken in Srinagar. The phenomenon of ‘style switching’ is very common among the educated speakers of Kashmir. Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar and surrounding areas continues to hold the prestige of being the standard variety which is used in education, mass-media and literature. Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar has gained some social prestige, very frequently style switching takes place from Marazi or Kamrazi styles to the style of speech spoken in Srinagar. The phenomenon of ‘style switching’ is very common among the educated speakers of Kashmir. Kashmiri spoken in Srinagar and surrounding areas continues to hold the prestige of being the standard variety which is used in education, mass-media and literature. In the literature available in Kashmiri (Grierson 1919, Kachru 1969) including the census reports, following regional dialects of Kashmiri spoken outside the valley of the Kashmir have been listed: Kashtawari, Poguli, Rambani and Siraji do not share any of the typical linguistic characteristics with Kashmiri. Rambani and Siraji are closely related dialects which share some features such as the semantic dimensions of the pronominal system, some morphology and a substantial portion of their vocabulary (mostly borrowed from common source) with Kashmiri. The term Kohistani has no precise linguistic significance. It cannot be therefore recognize as a dialect of Kashmiri. This leaves out Kashtawari and Poguli probably the only two regional dialects of Kashmiri spoken outside the valley of Kashmir. Poguli is spoken in Pogul and Paristan valleys bordered in the east by Kashtawari, on the south by Rambani and Siraji, and on the west by mixed dialects of Lahanda and Pahari. The speakers of Poguli are found mainly to the south, south-east and south-west of Banihal. Poguli shares many linguistic features including 70% vocabulary with Kashmiri. Literate Poguli speakers of Pogul and Paristan valleys speak the standard Kashmiri as well. Kashtawari is spoken in Kashtawar valley, lying to the south-east of Kashmir. It is bordered on the south by Bhadarwahi, on the west by Chibbali and Punchi, and on the east by the Tibetan speaking region of Zanskar. According to Grierson (1919:233), Kashtawari is one true dialect of Kashmiri. It shares most linguistic features of standard Kashmiri, but retains some archaic features which have disappeared from the latter. It shares about 80% vocabulary with Kashmiri (Koul and Schmidt 1984). Schmidt 1984). No detailed sociolinguistic research work has been conducted to study speech variations of Kashmiri spoken by different communities and speakers who belong to different professions and occupations. In some earlier works beginning with Grierson (1919:233) distinction has been pointed out in speech variations of Hindus and Muslims-two major communities who speak Kashmiri natively. Kachru (1969) has used the term Sanskritized Kashmiri and Persianized Kashmiri to denote the two style difference on the grounds of some variation in pronunciation, morphology and vocabulary used by Hindus and Muslims respectively. It is true that most of the distinct vocabulary used by Hindus is derived from Sanskrit, and that used by Muslims is derived from Perso-Arabic sources. On considering phonological and morphological variations (besides vocabulary) between these two dialects, the terms used by Kachru do not appear to be adequate enough to represent the two socio-dialectical variations of style and speech. The dichotomy of these social dialects is not always clear-cut. One can notice a process of style switching between the speakers of these two communities. The style switching depends on different situations and periods of contact between the participants of the two communities at various social, educational and other levels. Bibliographical references and annotations of the prominent works are given below. Afaq Aziz 1994. dard kha:nda:ncan mukhtapliph zaba:nan kha:skar k:shur, shina: tkohist:n’ hund akh taqa:bali: . muta:l ( A comparative study of various languages of Dard group with special reference to Kashmiri, Kohistani and Shina). University of Kashmir Ph.D. dissertation (unpublished). Provides data from different dialects related too Dardic group of languages. Banihali, Marghub 1997. Poguli-k:shiri zab:n’ h nz akh ham bu:l’ [Kashmiri] (Poguli – an important dialect of Kashmiri). Anhar, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33-48. Demarcates the Poguli speaking area and points out regional varieties of the dialect. It also mentions some linguistic characteristic of Poguli. nhar, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 33-48. Demarcates the Poguli speaking area and points out regional varieties of the dialect. It also mentions some linguistic characteristic of Poguli. Ganju, Triloki Nath 1975. Kashmiri bha:sha: ka: udbhav aur vika:s tatha: anya bha:ha:õ se uska: sambandh (Origin and development of Kashmiri and its relationship with other languages). Doctoral dissertation, The University of Kashmir (unpublished). Traces the history and the development of the Kashmiri language. Attempts to show its genetic relationship with Sanskrit and Apbhramsha. Most of the rules postulated for justifying the arguments, however, are not convincing and deserve a serious revision. Ganju, Triloki Nath 1977. k :shiri zab :n’ mutalakh akh nov so• :c (A new thought on the Kashmiri language). Anhar, vol.1, no.1, pp. 6-35. Reviews Grieson’s classification of Kashmir with Shina in the Dardic group of languages, and argues against it. Grierson, George A. 1906. The Pisaca languages of north- Western India. London: The royal Asiatic Society. Reprinted Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1969, pp. vii +192. This work outlines Grierson’s classification of ‘Modern Pisaca’ languages, and is the basis for his vol. 8 of the LSI. Although the classification has been superseded, it is still a useful work which bristles with phonological detail, derivations and sound correspondences. Grierson, George A. 1915. The Linguistic Classification of Kashmiri. Indian Antiquary, vol. 44, pp. 257-270. Presents a brief account of his classification of the Dardic speeches under the designation of Pisaca languages. Grierson, George A. 1910. Indo-Aryan Family, North Western group: Specimens of the Dardic or Pisaca languages (including Kashmiri). Linguistic survey of India, vol. 8, Part 2. Calcutta, Reprinted Delhi : Motital Banarasidas, 1968. 567p., Folding maps. Vols. 1, 8, Parts 1, and 2, 9, Part 1, and 10 also reprinted Lahore: Accurate Printers, 1982. It is a compilation of vocabularies, skeleton grammars and texts of three “Kafir and Dardic” languages. Grierson was one of the first scholars to address the problem of classifying these languages, and while his classification in no longer generally accepted, it continues to provide a point of departure for debate and reclassification. compilation of vocabularies, skeleton grammars and texts of three “Kafir and Dardic” languages. Grierson was one of the first scholars to address the problem of classifying these languages, and while his classification in no longer generally accepted, it continues to provide a point of departure for debate and reclassification. Jalali, J. L. K. 1979. kshi:r, k:shi:r’ t k:shir z’av [Kashmir, the Kashmiris and the Kashmiri language]. Anhar, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 67-71. Presents a brief description of Kashmiri, Kashmiri people and the Kashmiri language. Attempts to provide some examples for demonstrating the proximity of Kashmiri and Vedic Sanskrit. Kachru, Braj B. 1969. Kashmiri and other Dardic languages. Sebeok, Thomas A. (ED), Current trends in linguistic, vol. 5, pp. 284-306. The Hague: Mounton. Reviews the earlier classification of Kashmiri and other Dardic languages made by Grierson and Morgenstierne, and mentions some linguistic characteristics of Kashmiri. Kalla, Badri Nath 1977. k:shiri zab:n’ manz ve:dik zab :n’ hund unsur (Vedic elements in the Kashmiri language). Anha:r, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 49-62. Attempts to illustrate similarities between the Vedic Sanskrit and Kashmiri at the lexical and some grammatical levels, with the aid of examples. Koul, Omkar N.1984. Kashmiri. George, K. M. (Ed) Comparative Indian Literature vol. 1. Trivandrum : Kerala Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Discusses linguistic characteristics of Kashmiri very briefly. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming). Dardic Languages. In Prakasam, V. (ed.) An Encyclopedic Dictionary of Linguistic and Sciences. New Delhi: Allied Publishers. Reviews the classification of Dardic languages very briefly with special reference to Kashmiri. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming). The Kashmiri language. In Handbook of Indian Languages, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Presents a brief description of the Kashmiri language. language. In Handbook of Indian Languages, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Presents a brief description of the Kashmiri language. Koul, Omkar N. and Ruth Laila Schmidt 1984. Dardistan revised: An examination of relationship between Kashmiri and Shina. In Koul, Omkar N. and Peter E. Hook (eds.) , Aspects of Kashmiri linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications, pp. 1-26. Reviews previous classification and presents a comparison of four Kashmiri and four Shina dialects, based on an analysis of typological features, survival of archaism, and shared vocabulary. Mahafooz Jan 1992. kshi:r tk:shir zaba:n: akh lis:niy:ti: j:yz(Kashmir and the Kashmiri language: A linguistic study). Srinagar: Bavath publications. A collection of articles related to mother tongue education, language, society and community. Masica, Colin P. 1991. The Indo-Aryan languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Discuss certain linguistic characteristics of Kashmiri. Mujoo, Ramesh 1982. Position of languages in State of Jammu and Kashmir. Bose, Kshanika and R.C. Shrivastava (eds.) Reading in Language Studies, pp. 193-210. New Delhi: Metropolitan. Presents a review of the use of language in Jammu and Kashmir. Suggest an outline for the use of languages in the state’s language curriculum. Prem Singh (forthcoming). Position of Kashmiri: Rethinking about Grierson’s theory in C. Ramarao Felicitation Volume.Osmania University. Schmidt, Ruth Laila 1981. Report on a survey of Dardic languages of Kashmir. Indian Linguistics. vol.41. A brief report on the projects which furnished the data base for Koul and Schmidt 1984, “Dardistan revisited”. The major points of that paper are summarized. for Koul and Schmidt 1984, “Dardistan revisited”. The major points of that paper are summarized. Schmidt, Ruth Laila and Omkar N. Koul (Forthcoming). The Kashmiri Language. In An Encyclopaedia of the Languages of the Muslims World, Parsis: G.R.L.M. Presents a survey of Kashmir language and literature elaborating on the influence of the Muslim World. Verma, Sidheshwar 1940. Notes on a linguistic tour of Kashmir. Indian Linguistics vol. 8. pp. 478-483. Briefly illustrates some linguistic characteristics of Khasi and some other unexplored dialects in Riasi and in the Kashmir valley. Zainagiri, A. K. Tak 1967. k:shir’uk ala:kva:d phe:rtk:shir zaba:n (Regional Variations of Kashmir and Kashmiri Language). Srinagar. 520 p. Lists lexical variation of some Kashmiri vocabulary items in different regions of the Kashmiri speaking areas. Zakharyin, Boris A. 1984. Kashmiri and the Typology of South Asian Languages. In Koul, Omkar N. and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.) Aspects of Kashmiri Linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. pp. 27-45. Presents quantitative typological indexes of Kashmiri and eight other languages of South Asia, and comments about their implications for early contacts. 2. Phonetics and Phonology Kashmiri has peculiar phonetic and phonological characteristics which it does not share with other Indo-Aryan languages. These peculiar characteristics have generated a lot of interest among the foreign and native scholars. The phonemic inventory of Kashmiri vowels and consonants is as follows: (1) Vowels Front Central Back High i i: : u u: Mid e e: : o o: Low a a: . (2) Consonants Bila. Den. Retro. Pala. Vel. Glo. Stops: vl. anas p. t tk vl. asp ph th th kh vd. unas b d d. g Affricates: vl. unas ts c vl. asp tsh ch vd. unas j Nasals: m n Fricatives: vl. s šh vd. z Lateral: l Trill: r Semivowels: v y Abbreviations: Bila (Bilabial), Den (Dental), Retro (Retroflex) Pala (Palatal, Vel (Velar), Glo (Glottal). Pala (Palatal, Vel (Velar), Glo (Glottal). The length of the vowels is represented by the sign colon [:] written after the vowel sign. All the vowels can be nasalized. The nasalization is phonemic in Kashmiri. It is represented by the nasal sign written above the vowel sign. Note that the vowel /o:/ is diphthongised as /o:/ in the word-medical position of words (bo:r ‘load’, bro:r ‘cat’, etc.). Other diphthongs /u / and /u:/ also occur in a few words in the word-medical positions only (shur ‘a female child’ as opposed to shur ‘a male child’, tsur ‘a female thief’ as opposed to tsu:r ‘a male thief’). Grierson has talked about ma:tra: vowels in Kashmiri. His description of vowels has been reviewed in Koul (1987). All the non-palatal consonants in Kashmiri can be palatalized. Palatalization is phonemic. There is a contrast between non-palatalized and palatalized consonants in the language. The palatalization of the consonants is represented by the sign apostrophe [’] written after the consonant sign. Geminated consonants do not occur in Kashmiri. There is no word accent or tone in Kashmiri. There are word-final, sentences-medial and sentence-final junctures and sentence accents. Description of speech sounds is available in Kachru (1969, 1973), Handoo (1973), Koul (1977, 1985, and 1987), Bhat (1987) Wali and Koul (1997,2004), etc. Kelkar and Trisal (1964). Sar (1970, 1977) has described certain phonological aspects of Kashmiri. No detailed phonetic and phonological studies in Kashmir have been carried out so far. Bibliographical references of important works on the subjects are presented below: Acharya, K. P. 1965. Phonology of Kashmiri with particular reference to vowel system. M. A. thesis. Osmania University (unpublished). Presents a very sketchy description of Kashmiri vowels. Bailey, T. Grahame 1937. The pronunciation of Kashmiri: Kashmiri sounds: how to make them and how to transcribe them. London: The Royal Asiatic Society. vi+70p. Diagrams, Vocabulary. Presents a first detailed description of speech sounds of Kashmiri. It is based on Grierson’s work. of speech sounds of Kashmiri. It is based on Grierson’s work. Firth, J. R. 1939. Kashmiri (Specimen). Le Mitre Phonetique, 3rd series, no. 65, pp. 67-68. A short text (The North Wind and the Sun) in phonetic transcription, with a tentative analysis of vowels consonants. A useful companion to Bailey 1937 and Morgenstierne 1941. Grierson, George A. 1904. On the modern Indo-Aryan alphabets of north-western India. JRAS pp. 67-73. Contains a note of the Sharda script, with plates showing the Gurmukhi, Lahnda, Takri and Sharda scripts. Handoo, Jawahar Lal 1973. Kashmiri phonetic reader. Mysore Central Institute of Indian Languages. ix+109p. Provides a brief description of the articulation of Kashmiri speech sounds, and contains sections on phonetic drills and phonetic contrasts. An appendix outlines methods of adapting the Nastaliq and Devanagri writing systems to Kashmiri. Useful for students for Kashmiri as a second as a second/foreign language. Joshi, S. S. 1979. Kashmiri phonology. Paper presented in the seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRLC. Mimeo, 10p. Kelkar, Ashok, R. and Pran Nath Trisal 1964. Kashmiri word phonology: A first sketch. Anthropological Linguistics, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 13-22. Presents a brief introduction, inventory of Kashmiri phonemes, their contrasts and phonetic correlations, distributional limitations, along with orthographic recommendations. Koul, Omkar N. 1987. k:širi zab:n’ h nd’an buniy :d’ musvatan hnz nisha:ndihi: tGrierson (Grierson and the demarcation of Kashmiri vowels). In Anha:r (Grierson number), vol.10, no. 3. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming) The Kashmiri language. In Encyclopedia of Dravidan Linguistics. Trivandrum: Dravidan Linguistic society. The Kashmiri language. In Encyclopedia of Dravidan Linguistics. Trivandrum: Dravidan Linguistic society. Morgenstierne, George 1941. The phonology of Kashmiri. In Acta Orientalia, vol. 1, pp. 79-99. Based on a comparison of transcription systems used for Kashmiri vowels by Grierson, Bailey, Fifth, Stein, Elmslie and Govind Kaul; the author discusses the inventory of Kashmiri vowels. Nazki, Rashid 1977. k:šur imla: mas:il t hal (The problems of script in Kashmiri). In Anhar vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 21-46. Points out certain problems in the use of Kashmiri script to represent Kashmiri speech sounds, and suggests solutions. Prem Singh (forthcoming). Introduction to Historical phonology of Kashmiri. In South Asian Language Review. Pushp, P. N. 1973. k:šr zab:n’ za:n (An introduction to Kashmiri) So:n Adab Srinagar: J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages. pp. 6-31. Presents a brief introduction to Kashmiri phonology, morphology and syntax, in the Kashmiri language. Raina, S. N. 1979. A contrastive study of Kashmiri and Hindi phonology. Paper presented in the seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRLC. Mimeo 15p. Sar, Mohan Lal 1970. A study of some aspects of phonemics and morphophonemics of Kashmiri. M. Litt, thesis. University of Delhi: (unpublished). Sar, Mohan Lal 1979. Vowel Harmony in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRL Mimeo, 18 p. Toshkhani, S. K. 1977. k:šur rasmi khat : brõh taz. Anhar vol. no. 2. Srinagar, pp. 5-20. Presents the problems in the use of development of Sharda and Perso-Arabic scripts for Kashmiri and offers suggestions for the standardization of the Kashmiri Script. the Kashmiri Script. Verma, Sidheshwar 1964. Syllabification in the Kashmiri language. Abercrombe, David et. al., (eds.) In Honor of Daniel Jones. Papers contributed on the occasion of his eighteenth birthday. London: Longmans, Green and Company. pp. 471-474. Zakharyin, B.A. 1974. Problemy fonoligii jazika Kashmiri. (Phonological problems in Kashmiri language). Moscow : Academy of Sciences, pp. 162. The introduction compares description of Kashmiri phonology by Grierson, Isvara Kaula, Morgenstierne, Kelkar and Trisal. Chapter I deals with acoustic features with Kashmiri sounds as analyzed in the phonetic laboratories of Leningrad University, and pays special attention to vowels. Chapter 2 deals with paradigmatic and syntagmatic characteristics of Kashmiri phonemes; and chapter 4 addresses prosodic structures and morphophonemics. The book is written in Russian language. 3. Grammars and Grammatical Studies Various attempts have been made to present grammars and grammatical studies related to different aspects of Kashmiri, from the early 19 century onwards. The grammatical literature of Kashmiri comprises a variety of materials written in the form of brief notes, articles, monographs, dissertations, independent grammatical sketches, and grammars. A brief survey of some of the prominent works will be presented below. Some of the earlier works on the Kashmiri grammar are important and deserve attention of scholars. They include Edgeworth (1814) and Leech (1884). Leech (1884) is a first complete sketch of Kashmiri grammar written by European scholar from pedagogical point of view. A first serious attempt was made by Ishwara Kaul to present a complete grammatical description of Kashmiri in his Kashmira Shabdamritan (Grammar of Kashmiri Language) written in Sanskrit in 1979. This grammar was edited by George A. Grierson and published by the Asiatic Society of Bengal in 1889. Grierson describes this work as ‘an excellent grammar of Kashmiri.’ This book is now available in a new edition with Hindi translation by Ananta Ram Shastri (Delhi, 1985). Grierson has contributed to Kashmiri by his numerous works. He wrote articles entitled ‘On pronominal suffixes in the Kashmiri language’, ( JASB, vol. 64, no.1), and ‘On secondary suffixes in Kashmiri’ ( JASB, vol. 64, no.1), based on the work of Ishwara Kaul. Grierson has also written Standard manual of the Kashmiri language (2 volumes) comprising grammar, English- Kashmiri sentences and Kashmiri-English vocabulary. This was originally published in Oxford 1911 and reprinted by Light and Life Publishers, Rohtak in 1973. It presents a brief grammatical sketch of Kashmiri. He has provided a brief grammatical sketch of Kashmiri in his Linguistic Survey of India (originally published in 1919), vol. 8, Part 2. Burkhard (1887-1889) has written on different grammatical aspects of Kashmiri in German. Some of his works have been translated into English by Grierson. Grierson’s articles on different aspects of Kashmiri linguistics published earlier were also published in a book form under the title Essays on Kashmiri Language in 1899 in Calcutta. -1889) has written on different grammatical aspects of Kashmiri in German. Some of his works have been translated into English by Grierson. Grierson’s articles on different aspects of Kashmiri linguistics published earlier were also published in a book form under the title Essays on Kashmiri Language in 1899 in Calcutta. It is only for the last four decades or so that some serious work on grammatical studies in Kashmiri has been carried out. This work is available in the form of research articles, dissertations and independent grammatical sketches or grammars. Trisal’s doctoral dissertation (1964) provides a first descriptive grammar of Kashmiri written in Hindi. It describes Kashmiri phonology, morphology and syntax in the traditional descriptive framework. Kachru (1969) provides a grammatical description of Kashmiri. This grammar contains an introduction and chapters dealing with phonetics, phonology, word formation, word clauses, the noun phrase, the verb phrase, the adverbial phrase, and the sentence types. It is the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of Kashmiri. It is mimeographed and has a very limited circulation. Kachru (1968) provides a description of some syntactic and semantic aspects of copula verb in Kashmiri. His ‘Kashmiri and other Dardic languages’ reviews earlier classification of Kashmiri and other Dardic languages and mentions some linguistic characteristics of Kashmiri. Another important work of Kachru (1973) primarily contains lessons for learning Kashmiri as a second or foreign language. It has grammatical and cultural notes on Kashmiri. He has elaborated the discussion of various grammatical aspects. This book also has a limited circulation. Koul (1977) provides a first detailed description of certain morphological and syntactic aspects of Kashmiri. It has chapters on noun phrase, the adjective phrase, auxiliary, the verb phrase, questions, coordinate conjunctions, reduplication, kinship terms and lexical borrowings. Koul (1985, 1987) provides description of the basic grammatical structures of Kashmiri along with lessons. These courses have been prepared and are being used for teaching Kashmiri as a second language to in-service teachers as Northern Regional Language Center, Patiala, and also to civil service officers at the LBS National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie. also to civil service officers at the LBS National Academy of Administration, Mussoorie. Two grammars on Kashmiri have been written in Kashmiri so far by Naji Munawar and Shafi Shauq (1976), and Nishant Ansari (1976). Both these grammars provide a very brief description of traditional grammatical terms in Kashmiri. Their main contribution has been in introducing Kashmiri terms for traditional grammatical terms used in Urdu. A few doctoral dissertations submitted to various universities are devoted to different grammatical aspects of Kashmiri. R. K. Bhat’s doctoral dissertation (1980) no w published in book-form (1986) describes phonology and morphology of Kashmiri in detail. Mohan Lal Sar (1981) describes verbal inflections of Kashmiri. Sushila Sar (1977) critically examines the description of the Kashmiri language as made by Ishwar Kaul. Raj Nath Bhat (1981) describes pragmatic aspects of Kashmiri. Maharaj Krishen Koul’s dissertation (1982) now available in book form (1986) provides description of certain grammatical aspects of Kashmiri. Andrabi (1984) presents description of reference and co-reference in Kashmiri. Dhar (1984) provides the discussion of certain phonological and grammatical aspects of Kashmiri spoken in the district of Baramulla in the Kashmir valley and makes comparison of certain grammatical characteristics of Kashmiri from sociolinguistic point of view. Vijay Kumar Koul (1985) attempts to provide the description of compound verbs in Kashmiri. Kantroo (1985) provides the contrastive study of certain grammatical features with special reference to certain minority languages of Kashmiri. Soom Nath Raina’s dissertation (1985) now available in print form (1990) has discussed pedagogical problems in the teaching of Kashmiri as a second language. As may be seen from the titles and contents of these dissertations, various grammatical aspects related to Kashmiri have attracted the attention of research scholars. Most of these dissertations are unpublished. The topics dealt by the researchers have been pursued by others scholars as well. Besides various dissertations completed on various aspects of Kashmiri, the scholars have independently worked on various grammatical aspects of Kashmiri following different theoretical frameworks. Most of these works are published in different journals or are compiled in certain volumes devoted to linguistic studies of Kashmiri. These papers raise various significant issues and seek solutions to various problems. Hook (1976) has argued for V2 word order for Kashmiri. This paper has generated great interest among various scholars who chose to discuss word order in their works. Certain works have supported the argument. Koul and Hook have co-edited a volume on Kashmiri (1984) which includes research articles on different grammatical aspects of Kashmiri. journals or are compiled in certain volumes devoted to linguistic studies of Kashmiri. These papers raise various significant issues and seek solutions to various problems. Hook (1976) has argued for V2 word order for Kashmiri. This paper has generated great interest among various scholars who chose to discuss word order in their works. Certain works have supported the argument. Koul and Hook have co-edited a volume on Kashmiri (1984) which includes research articles on different grammatical aspects of Kashmiri. Wali and Koul (1997) have provided a detailed description of Kashmiri grammar covering syntax, morphology, phonology, etc. Koul and Wali (forthcoming) have dealt with phonology, morphology and syntax of Kashmiri from pedagogical point of view. Hook and Koul (forthcoming) deal with various syntactic aspects in Kashmiri in comparison with other Indo-Aryan languages. Most of the earlier works on Kashmiri are out of print and are not easily available; they need to be reprinted. There is no comprehensive or pedagogical grammar of Kashmiri to cater to the needs of the second language learners of the language. Main grammatical characteristics of Kashmiri are indicated below. Nominals include nouns, pronouns, adjectives and pro- adjectives. Nouns are declined for number, gender and case. There are two numbers: singular and plural. All nouns are either masculine or feminine. All animate objects follow the natural gender. There are no hard and fast rules for assigning gender distinction to initiate objects. They can be learnt only by practice. There are six cases, a direct nominative case and five oblique cases: dative, ergative, genitive, locative and ablative. Different case suffixes are added to the nouns in oblique cases. There are two types of postpositions governing dative and ablative cases. A noun phrase may consist of three constituents-determiner, noun and number. Modifiers of nouns are derived from underlying sentences and therefore a sentence may also be an optional constituent of the noun phrase. The co-occurrence restriction of nouns with number and that of nouns with verbs form an important part of the study of Kashmiri. Pronouns are also declined for person, number, gender and case. There are separate first and second person personal pronouns declined for number, person and case. Demonstrative pronouns are used for the third person personal pronoun as well. There is a three-term distinction in the demonstrative pronouns: case. There are separate first and second person personal pronouns declined for number, person and case. Demonstrative pronouns are used for the third person personal pronoun as well. There is a three-term distinction in the demonstrative pronouns: (i) proximate (ii) remote (within sight) and (iii) remote (out of sight) i.e., yi ‘this’, hu ‘that’ (within sight), su ‘that’ (out of sight). The demonstrative, relative, interrogative and indefinite pronouns also have three sets of forms referring to (a) masculine animate beings, (b) feminine animate beings and (c) inanimate things. Pronominal suffixes are very frequently suffixed to finite verbal forms to indicate personal pronouns. The usage of pronominal suffixes is optional in the case of first and third person but their use is obligatory in the second person. The pronominal suffixes agree with the pronouns in person, number and case. There are two sets of adjectives: (i) adjectives which are declined for number, gender and case (e.g., kruhun ‘black’, n’u:l ‘blue’, bod, ‘big’, etc.) and (ii) indeclinable adjectives (e.g., saphe:d ‘white’, ja:n ‘good’, etc.). Adjectives which are declinable agree with their nouns in number, gender, and case. All genitives in Kashmiri are declinable adjectives. Pro- adjectives in Kashmiri are declinable adjectives. They are declined for number, gender and case as other declinable adjectives. Adjectives are main constituents of adjective phrases. It is important to make a distinction between the base adjectives and derived adjectives. Base adjectives are not derived from any other grammatical category, and therefore do not contain any derivational suffixes (e.g., ku:r cha thz ‘The girl is tall’, shur chu v’oth ‘The child is fat’) The derived adjectives on the other hand are derivationally related to some other grammatical category such as noun or verb. Verbs are inflected for person, gender, number, and tense in Kashmiri. All verbs are conjugated and can be classified in different sets according to the sentence patterns. All but seven verb stems end in consonants. The infinite or verbal noun is formed by adding -un to the verb stem. In the conjugation of the past tense, three distinctions are made: (i) simple past, (ii) indefinite past and (iii) remote past. Different past participles are used to form the three types of past tenses. Different types of verbal structures are formed with or without the help of auxiliary verb. The verb root, the present participle and the past and perfect participle are used in the formation of other parts of verb. Some verbs form their past participles in irregular manner (e.g., marun, ‘to die’, d’un ‘to give’, dazun ‘to burn’, etc.) Different past participles are used to form the three types of past tenses. Different types of verbal structures are formed with or without the help of auxiliary verb. The verb root, the present participle and the past and perfect participle are used in the formation of other parts of verb. Some verbs form their past participles in irregular manner (e.g., marun, ‘to die’, d’un ‘to give’, dazun ‘to burn’, etc.) Conjunct and compound verbs are very common in Kashmiri. Conjunct verb is formed by combining a nominal and verb (e.g., šra:n karun ‘to take a bath’, hisa:b d’un ‘to account for’. The compound verb is a combination of two verbs, in which one is the main verb and the other an explicator or operator. The main verb is an obligatory element of a verb phrase. Main verbs in Kashmiri are classified under copulative, intransitive, transitive and causative verbs. The copula verb in Kashmiri takes a nominal, adjectives and adverbial compliments. Intransitive verbs (which do not take a noun phrase as complement) are classified under three categories on the bases of the chase markers the subject may take. The transitive verbs take a noun phrase as a complement). A ditranstive verb takes two objects. Verbs are causativized by adding causative suffixes to the verb stem. Verb phrase complements may also include embedded sentences such as (i) noun clause sentences, (ii) question word second sentences and (iii) tenseless sentences. In Kashmiri, the verb comes at second position in a sentence, and the object, if any, comes at the (e.g., yi chu kalam ‘This is a pen’; m’o:n do:s yiyi az ‘My friend will come today’). On the basis of the word order, Kashmiri is classified as a V2 language. The verb comes at the final position in phrases and question word questions only. For example, in the sentence m’o:n do:s, yus dili chu ro:za:n, yiyi az ‘My friend, who lives in Delhi will come today’) the verb in the subordinate clause come in the final position. Similarly, in the question word questions are like yi k’a: chu ? ‘What is this?’ the verb comes at the end of the sentence. Bibliographical reference to the prominent works related to grammars and grammatical studies are as follows: Altha, Fayaz M. 1994. Kashmiri Causative Constructions and the Antipassive analysis. In Indian Linguistics, vol 55, pp. 1the Antipassive analysis. In Indian Linguistics, vol 55, pp. 1 22. Andrabi, S.M.I 1979. Verb phrase structure in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmiri. Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala. Mimeo 12 p. Andrabi, S.M.I 1984. Reference and Co-reference in Kashmiri. Doctoral dissertations, Poona University, Pune (unpublished). rovides a detailed description of reference and co-reference system of Kashmiri. It presents quite useful and interesting data. Bashar, Bashir 1981. k :širis manz tazkir!t :nis (Gender in Kashmiri). Biru (Kashmir): Habib Publications, 136p. Describes the structure of gender system in Kashmiri along with examples. This is first book on the subject written in Kashmiri. Bashir, Elena 1987. Agreement in Kashmiri infinitive compliments. Bashir, Elena et. al.(eds.). Select papers from SALA –7 Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club. pp. 13-30 Bhat, Raj Nath 1982. Pragmatism in Kashmiri. Doctoral dissertations. Kurukshetra University (unpublished). Besides an introduction , it contains chapters on pragmatic aspects of communication, illocutionary force, presuppositions and implicature, deixis and conclusion. Bhat, Raj N. and Ramesh C. Sharma 1979. Colour system in Kashmiri: A study of some cognitive and semantic aspects. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmiri. Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala. Mimeo, 13p. Bhat, Roopkrishen 1979. Pronominal suffixes in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the seminar on Kashmiri. Northern Regional language Centre, Patiala. Mimeo, 13 p. Bhat, Roopkrishen 1980. Phonology and Morphology of Kashmiri. Doctoral dissertation. Kurukshetra University. Presents a general description of main aspects of Kashmiri phonology and morphology. Phonology and Morphology of Kashmiri. Doctoral dissertation. Kurukshetra University. Presents a general description of main aspects of Kashmiri phonology and morphology. Bhat, Roopkrishen 1980. Case in Kashmiri. Indian Journal of Linguistics. vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 44-59. Bhat, Roopkrishen 1982. k":šir kita:b – I (State school reader in Kashmiri Level I) Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. A textbook for teaching Kashmiri as a second language in schools. Bhat, Roopkrishen 1987. A descriptive study of Kashmiri. Delhi: Amar Prakashan. It is a revised version of his doctoral dissertations entitled Phonology and Morphology of Kashmiri, submitted to Kurukshetra University in 1980. It provides an introduction and chapters on phonology, morphophonemics, and morphology. It provides a useful introductory description of various aspects of phonology and morphology of the language. Bhatia, Tej K. 1995. Negation in South Asian Languages Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. It includes the analysis of the negative constructions in Kashmiri. Bhatt, Rajesh (forthcoming). Acquisition of a complementizer and the loss of narrative inversion in Kashmiri. Bhatt, Rajesh (forthcoming). Verb Movement in Kashmiri. Bhatt, Rakesh M. 1993. Psyched Out – Analyzing Quirky Constructions. in Papers from the 29th Regional Meetings of the Chicago Linguistic Society, vol. 1, 77-88. Chicago CLS. Bhatt, Rakesh M. 1994. World order and Case in Kashmiri. Ph. D. dissertation, University of Illinois, Urbana. Bhatt, Rakesh M. 1999. Verb movement and the Syntax of Kashmiri. Dordrecht: Kluwar Academic Press. Verb movement and the Syntax of Kashmiri. Dordrecht: Kluwar Academic Press. Bhatt, Rakesh M. 2001. Review of Kashmiri: A Cognitive- Descriptive Grammar by Kashi Wali and Omkar N Koul. In The Yearbook of South Asian Languages and Linguistics. New Delhi: Sage. Bhatt, Rakesh and J. Yoon 1992. On the composition of Comp and Parameters of V2. D. Bates (edited) The Proceedings of the Tenth West Coast Conference of Formal Linguistics, 4152, Stanford: CSLI Publications. Burkhard, Karl Friedrich 1887. Das Verbum der Kashmirisprache. Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch – philolagagichsen und historischen Classe der Bayerischen Koniglichen Akademie det Wissenschaften zu Munchen, pp. 303-426. Burkhard, Karl Friedrich 1888. Die Nomina der Kashmirisprache. Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch – philolagagichsen und historischen Classe der Bayerischen Koniglichen Akademie det Wissenschaften zu Munchen, pp. 444-522. Burkhard, Karl Friedrich 1889. Die Prepositionen ker Kashmirisprache. Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch – philolagagichsen und historischen Classe der Bayerischen Koniglichen Akademie det Wissenschaften zu Munchen, pp. 375-468. Burkhard, Karl Friedrich 1895. Essay on Kashmiri Grammar. Translate and edited, with notes and additions, by G. A. Grierson. The Indian Antiquary, vol. 24, 337-347. Del Bon, Estella. 2002. Personal Inflexions and Order of Clitics in Kashmiri. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 129-142. New Delhi: Creative. Dhar, Nazir A. 1979. Kashmiri personal pronouns: A sociolinguistic study. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmir. Patiala: NRLC. Mimeo, 9p. sociolinguistic study. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmir. Patiala: NRLC. Mimeo, 9p. Dulai, Narinder K. 1991. Review of Spoken Kashmiri: A language course by Omkar N. Koul. In South Asian Language Review, vol. 1, no.1. Edelman, D.I. 1966. Dardskie jazyki (Dardic Languages). Moscow: Academy of Sciences. Presents an outline of grammatical characteristics of some Dardic language very briefly. Edgeworth, M. P. 1941. Grammar and vocabulary of the Kashmiri language. JRASB, vol. 10, Part 2, pp. 1038-1064. A skeleton grammar with a brief vocabulary, collected by the author in Ludhiana during 1839. Ganju, Triloki Nath 1979. k#:šur-hindi ri:d,ar (Kashmiri-Hindi Reader). Srinagar: University of Kashmir. 238 p. Written in Hindi for non-Kashmiri students of Kashmir. It provides a brief description of Kashmiri speech sounds (vowels and constants), a list of words and sentence in Kashmiri, both in the Perso-Arabic and Devanagari scripts. It is of limited usefulness for Hindi speaking who wish to learn Kashmiri. Grierson, George A. 1895. On the pronominal suffixes in the Kashmiri language. JRASB, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 336-351. Presents a brief description of pronominal suffixes in Kashmiri, along with those of Sindhi and Western Punjabi. The author discusses the origin of the suffixes and their occurrence in other languages of the subcontinent. Grierson, George A. 1898. On primary suffixes in Kashmiri. JRASB, vol. 67, no.1, pp.193-220. A description of 37 primary suffixes as treated in the kradanta-prakriya of Ishwara Kaula (1898) with examples. Grierson, George A. 1898. On the secondary suffixes in Kashmiri. JRASB, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 221-225. An account of secondary suffixes in Kashmiri based on the work of the fourth part of Ishwara Kaula (1989). It provides example of 89 secondary suffixes used for expressing relationship and in the formation of abstract nouns, diminutives, etc. Kashmiri. JRASB, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 221-225. An account of secondary suffixes in Kashmiri based on the work of the fourth part of Ishwara Kaula (1989). It provides example of 89 secondary suffixes used for expressing relationship and in the formation of abstract nouns, diminutives, etc. Grierson, George A. 1899. Essays on Kashmiri grammar. Reprinted from the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal for 1896-1899. London: Luzac. Grierson, George A. 1911. Standard manual of the Kashmiri Language (2 volumes). Comprising grammar, phrase-book and vocabularies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Reprinted Rohtak (India): Light and Life Publishers, 1973. Also available Ann Arbor, Michigan: University Microfilms, 1970. Provides a very brief grammatical sketch of the Kashmiri language, and also contains text and vocabulary. Hook, Peter Edwin 1976. Is Kashmiri an SVO language? In Indian Linguistics, vol. 37, pp. 133-142. Addresses the issue of word order in Kashmiri, which is unique among Indian Languages. Hook, Peter Edwin 1984. Some further observations on Kashmiri word order. In Koul, Omkar N. and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.) Aspect of Kashmiri Linguistics Society. New Delhi: Bahri Publications, pp. 145-53. Hook, Peter Edwin 1984. Kashmirshabdamrita 8.3.3: An account of the ergative in the Paninian Linguistic Tradition. In Indian Linguistics, vol. 44, pp. 39-42. Hook, Peter Edwin 1984. The Anti Absolutive in Kashmiri and Summerian. In Papers from the Twentieth Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: CLS, 181-191. Hook, Peter Edwin 1985. The Super Anti Absolutive in Kashmiri, In Proceedings of the first annual meeting of the Pacific Linguistics Conference edited by DeLancy, Scot and edited by DeLancy, Scot and Russel Tomlin. Eugene: University of Oregon. Hook, Peter Edwin 1986. Null Valents in the Expression of Impersonal Acton in Kashmiri and Russian. In Papers from 22nd Annual Regional Meetings of the Chicago Linguistic Society. Chicago: CLS, 179-194. Hook, Peter Edwin and Ashok K Koul. 2002. Under the Surface of the South Asian Linguistic Area: More on the Syntax of Derived Transitives and Causatives in Kashmiri. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 103-12. New Delhi: Creative. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1984. On the grammar derived transitives and causative in Kashmiri. In Koul and Hook (eds.) Aspects of Kashmiri Linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. pp. 90-122. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1984. Pronominal suffixes are split ergativity in Kashmiri. In Koul and Hook (eds.) 1984. pp. 123-35. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1984. Kashmiri casuals: In the lexicon, the syntax of both? Paper presented in a seminar at Delhi University. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1985. Modal verbs of obligation in Kashmiri. In International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics vol.14, no.2, 236-273. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1987. Subject versus agent: A study of the Kashmiri phasal verb hye ‘begin to’. In Select Papers from SALA-7. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistic Club. pp. 199-219. Also in Journal of the Oriental Institute (Baroda), vol. 36, 1986-87. pp. 115 132. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1990. Reflexive possessives in Kashmiri and Hindi-Urdu: Evidence for an antecedency hierarchy. Paper presented in International Seminar on Anaphora. University of Delhi. In South-Asian Language Review 2.1.1992. possessives in Kashmiri and Hindi-Urdu: Evidence for an antecedency hierarchy. Paper presented in International Seminar on Anaphora. University of Delhi. In South-Asian Language Review 2.1.1992. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1991. Kashmiri casuals: Evidence for a transformational approach. Paper presented in the 13th South Asian Languages Analysis Roundtable. University of Illinois at Urbana-Campaign. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1991. Morphological conditioning of verbal-final order in V-2 languages: Evidence from Kashmiri. Paper presented in International symposium of Germanic languages and literatures. Ohio State University, Columbus. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1992. On the compound verb in Kashmiri. In International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics 21.1: 1-16. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 1998. Active-stative marking of intransitive subjects in Kashmiri inceptives. In va:gbha:rati: Proceedings of the 1997 International Congress of South Asian linguists, eds. Liudmila Khokhlova and Atul Sawani, 56-87. Moscow: Moscow State University. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul 2002. The verb laayun is not an exception. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics,eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 143-52. New Delhi: Creative. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul and Ashok Koul 1987.Differential S marking in Marathi, Hindi-Urdu and Kashmiri. In papers from the Twenty-third Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society. University of Chicago. 148-165. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul (Forthcoming). Concordant adverbs and discordant adjectives in Kashmiri. Concordant adverbs and discordant adjectives in Kashmiri. Hook, Peter Edwin and Omkar N. Koul (Forthcoming). Kashmiri: A study in comparative Indo-Aryan. Tokyo: IAALC, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. Includes new and revised versions of some earlier papers related to the structures of Kashmiri in comparison to other Indo-Aryan languages. Hook, Peter Edwin and Vijay Kumar Koul 1987. Case alternation, transitionality and the adoption of the direct objects in Kashmiri. Indian Linguistics, 48:52-69. Hook, Peter Edwin and Alexis Manaster-Ramer1984. The Verb Second Constraint in Kashmiri and Germanic: Towards a Typology of V - 2 Languages. In Germanic Linguistics: Papers from a Symposium at the University of Chicago. Bloomington: IUCL. Kachru, Braj B. 1968. Some notes on the copulative sentences in Kashmiri. Verhaar, John W. M.. (ed.) The Verb ‘Be’ and its synonyms. Philosophical and grammatical studies, vol. 3, pp. 20-43. Dordrecht-Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company. Provides a description of some syntactic and semantic aspects of the copula verb in Kashmiri. Kachru, Braj B. 1969. A Reference Grammar of Kashmiri. Urbana: University of Illinois, Department of linguistics (Mimeo), pp. xxv+416. Contains an introduction, chapters dealing with phonetics, phonology, word formation, word classes, the noun phrase, the verb phrase, the adverbial phrase, sentence types: and appendices covering compound verbs, a glossary, bibliography and index. It is the first attempt at a comprehensive treatment of Kashmiri. It has a limited distribution, and requires revision before it is printed. Kachru, Braj B. 1973. An introduction to spoken Kashmiri. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2 Vols., Illustrations, Map, Part I, pp. xlv + 735; Part II, pp. viii+94. Part I contains an introduction, a description of Kashmiri speech sounds, and 50 lessons (31 lessons presenting functional conversations, 14 lessons presenting narrative texts, and 5 lessons dealing with Kashmir poetry). There are grammatical and cultural notes plus exercises. Part II contains Kashmiri-English and English-Kashmiri glossary. The course is useful as supplementary instructional material for teaching Kashmiri as a second language. introduction, a description of Kashmiri speech sounds, and 50 lessons (31 lessons presenting functional conversations, 14 lessons presenting narrative texts, and 5 lessons dealing with Kashmir poetry). There are grammatical and cultural notes plus exercises. Part II contains Kashmiri-English and English-Kashmiri glossary. The course is useful as supplementary instructional material for teaching Kashmiri as a second language. Kachru, Yamuna, Braj B. and Tej K. Bhatia 1976. The Notion ‘Subject’: A note on Hindi -Urdu, Kashmiri and Punjabi. In Verma, Manindra (ed.) The Notation of Subject in South Asian Languages. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Kaula, Pandit Ishwara 1897-98. Kashmirashabdamrtam (A grammar of Kashmir written in Sanskrit) Edited with notes and additions by George A. Grierson. Calcutta: The Asiatic Society of Bengal. 379 p. Part I (1897): Declension. Part 2 (1898): (Declension. Part II (1898): Conjugation. Presents a first detailed description of Kashmiri grammar in Sanskrit. This book is out of point now. Kelkar, Ashok R. 1984. Kashmiri: A descriptive sketch. In Koul and Hook (eds.), Aspect of Kashmiri linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. pp. 62-89. Presents a brief description of Kashmiri phonology, grammar and vocabulary. Koul, Maharaj K. and Ramesh C. Sharma 1988. Numeral System in Kashmiri. In Indian Journal of Linguistics, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 43-50. Koul, Omkar N. 1975. Verbal Constructions in Kashmiri, Papers presented in the Seminar on Verbal constructions in Indo-Aryan. Kuruksetra University. Koul, Omkar N. 1976. Noun phrase in Kashmiri. In Indian Linguistics, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 187-195. Koul, Omkar N. 1976. A note on question in Kashmiri. In Indian Journal of Linguistics, vol.3 no.1. Indian Journal of Linguistics, vol.3 no.1. Koul, Omkar N. 1977. Linguistics Study in Kashmiri. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. It contains chapters on the noun phrase, the adjective phrase, the auxiliary, the verb phrase, questions, coordinate conjunction, reduplication, kinship terms, and lexical borrowings written from a pedagogical point of view. Koul, Omkar N. 1978. Verbal stems and syntactic structures in Kashmiri. Paper presented in Seminar on Verbal Stems and Syntactic Structures in Indo-Aryan. Kurukshetra University. Koul, Omkar N. 1979. On relative clauses in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRLC. Koul, Omkar N. 1985. An Intensive Course in Kashmiri. Mysore: CIIL. Useful for the teaching of Kashmiri as a second language. Introduces graded grammatical structures of Kashmiri in the form of dialogues, narration followed by drills, exercise, vocabulary and notes on grammar. It is used as textbook for teaching Kashmiri as a second language at Northern Regional Language Centre, Patiala and other institutions. Koul, Omkar N. 1987. Spoken Kashmiri: A Language Course. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. A handbook for teaching and learning Kashmiri as a second or foreign language. Each lesson contains text which is followed by drills, exercises, and notes on grammar and vocabulary. It uses Roman script for Kashmiri. Koul, Omkar N. 1988. Grammars in Kashmiri. In Encyclopedia of Indian Literature, vol. II. New Delhi: Sahitya Akadmi. pp. 22-25. Presents a brief survey of grammatical works on Kashmiri. Koul, Omkar N. 1995. An Intermediate Course in Kashmiri. Mysore: CIIL. Introduces graded lessons in Kashmiri using grammatical structures of intermediate level. Lessons contain text followed by exercises and vocabulary. An Intermediate Course in Kashmiri. Mysore: CIIL. Introduces graded lessons in Kashmiri using grammatical structures of intermediate level. Lessons contain text followed by exercises and vocabulary. Koul, Omkar N. (2003) Kashmiri. In Cardona, George and Dhanesh Jain (eds.) The Indo-Aryan Languages. London: Routledge. Presents a description on Kashmiri phonology, morphology and syntax. Koul, Omkar N. Kashmiri grammar. In Encyclopedia of Dravidian linguistics. Trivandrum: Dravidian Linguistics Society. Presents main characteristics of Kashmiri grammar. Koul, Omkar N. and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.) 1984. Aspects of Kashmiri linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. Contains papers on ‘Dardistan revisited: An examination of relationship between Kashmiri and Shina’ by Omkar N. Koul and Ruth Laila Schmidt, ‘Kashmiri and the typology of South Asian languages’ by Boris A. Zakharyin, ‘Kashmiri: A descriptive Sketch’ by Ashok R. Kelkar, towards a morphological classification of Kashmiri monosyllabic nouns’ by C. Shackle, ‘On the grammar of derived transitives and causatives in Kashmiri by Peter Edwin Hook and Omkar N. Koul, ‘Pronominal Suffixes and split ergativity in Kashmiri by Peter Edwin Hook and Omkar N. Koul, ‘Word order in Kashmiri: Some further evidence’ by K. V. Subbarao, ‘Further observations on Kashmiri word order’ by Peter Edwin Hook, and ‘Modes of address in Kashmiri by Omkar N. Koul. Koul, Omkar N. and P. Umarani 2000. Computerization of Kashmiri. In Vartavaha , 5. Koul, Omkar N. and Kashi Wali (eds.) 2002. Topics in Kashmiri linguistics. New Delhi: Creative Books. Contains papers on various aspects of syntax of Kashmiri contributed by Kashi Wali, Omkar N. Koul, Ashok K. Koul, Peter Edwin Hook, Estella Delbon, and Achla M. Raina. Koul, Omkar N and Kashi Wali (forthcoming) Modern Kashmiri Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press. Presents a description of Kashmiri phonology, morphology and syntax from pedagogical point of view. It has a chapter on lexicon containing classified vocabulary of Kashmiri. Modern Kashmiri Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press. Presents a description of Kashmiri phonology, morphology and syntax from pedagogical point of view. It has a chapter on lexicon containing classified vocabulary of Kashmiri. Leech, R.C.B. 1944. A grammar of Kashmiri language. JRASB, vol. 13, Part I pp. 397-420, Part II, pp. 553-570. Munnawar, Naji and Shafi Shouq 1976. k$:šur gr$:mar (Kashmiri grammar). Kaprin, Kashmiri: Bazmi Adab. A brief traditional grammatical sketch of Kashmir, in the Kashmiri language. The authors have coined a number of grammatical terms in Kashmiri, equivalent to ones used in traditional grammars of other languages. Nishat Ansari 1979. nov k$:šur gr$:mar (New Kashmiri Grammar). Srinagar. 84 p. A very brief grammatical sketch of Kahmiri in the Kashmiri language. It uses a number of grammatical terms from Urdu with examples in Kashmiri. Pandit, Bhushan Narain 1873. Gulzar-e-Kashmir (The Rose Garden of Kashmir). Lahore. A grammar of Kashmiri written in Urdu. It uses a traditional format. Pushp, P.N. 1973. k$:širic zab$:n’ za:n (An introduction to Kashmiri language). In Chaman vol. 6, Nos. 18-21. Provides a brief introduction to Kashmiri. Pushp, P. N. 1979. Non-agentive pronominal bound morphemes in the Kashmiri verb system. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRLC. Raina, Achla Mirsi 1993. An S-selectional to Grammar: Some issues in Kashmiri syntax. Doctoral dissertations, Indian Institute of Tecnology, Kanpur (unpublished). Raina, Achla Mirsi 1994. Dual and triple verbal agreement in Kashmiri. In South Asian Language review., vol. iv, no. 1 Kashmiri. In South Asian Language review., vol. iv, no. 1 Raina, Achla Mirsi 1995. Verb second in Kashmiri: A PF level constraint. In PJDS, vol. vi, no. 2 pp. 137-143. Raina, Achla Mirsi 1996. Question Phrases in Kashmiri: A case for movement to tense. South Asian Language Review, vol. vi, no. 1. Raina, Achla M. 2002. The Verb Second Phenomenon in Kashmiri. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 113-128. New Delhi: Creative. Raina, S.N. 1975. Negation in Kashmiri. Language Forum , vol. 1, Nos. 3-4 (1975-76), pp. 28-32. Raina, S.N. 1980. Imperative in Kashmiri. In Indian Journal of Linguistics. Raina, S.N. 1990. Kashmiri for non-Kashmiris: Learning and Teaching Problems. Patiala: Gopi Publications. pp. xi+206. It is the revised version of the doctoral dissertation of the author submitted to Kurukshetra University. This book is divided into six chapters: 1. Introduction, 2. Phonetics and Phonology, 3. morphology, 3. Syntax, 5. Lexicon, and 6. Script. It attempts to provide an error analysis of the errors committed by the native speakers of Hindi in learning Kashmiri as a second language. It points out certain contrastive features of Kashmiri and Hindi Sar, Mohan Lal 1981. Verbal Morphology of Kashmiri. Doctoral dissertations. University of Delhi (unpublished). Describes mainly the verbal inflections of Kashmiri. Sar, Susheela 1977. Kashmir shabdamrtamityasya samalocnatmakan adhyayanam (A critical study of the Kasmirasabdamrtam) Doctoral dissertations. Sampoornanand Sanskrit University, varanasi (unpublished). A critical study of Iswara Koul’s kasmirasabdamrtam in the Sanskrit Language. The author explains the text of the Kasmirasabdamrtam. Sanskrit Language. The author explains the text of the Kasmirasabdamrtam. Shackle, Christopher, 1984. Towards a morphological classification of Kashmiri monosyllabic nouns. Koul and Hook (eds.) Aspects of Kashmiri Linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. pp. 46-61. Sharma, Ramesh C. and Maharaj K. Koul 1979. Numeral system in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the Seminar on Kashmiri. Patiala: NRLC. Shauq, Shafi 1983. A Constrative Study of some Syntactic Patterns of English and Kashmiri with special reference to Complementation and Relativization. Ph.D dissertation, University of Kashmir. Syeed, Sayyid M. 1985. Morphological Causatives and the problems of the Transformational Approach. Bloomington: IUCL. Subbarao, Karumuri V. 1984. Word order in Kashmiri: Some further evidence. In Koul and Hook (eds.) Aspect of Kashmiri Linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. pp. 136-44. Argues for underlying SOV word-order in Kashmiri. Tickoo, Asha K. 1990. On Proposing and Word Order Rigidity. Ph.D. dissertations, University of Pennsylvania. Trisal, Pran Nath 1964. Kashmiri bhasah ka varnana: tmak vya:karan ( A Descriptive grammar of the Kashmiri language). Doctoral dissertations Agra University (unpublished). It is first descriptive outline of Kashmiri written in Hindi language. It contains chapters dealing with the phonology, morphology and syntax. Trisal, Pran Nath 1964. Kashmiri bhasha ka varnana: tmak vya:karan. In Bharatiya Sahitya, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 59-65. A summary of his doctoral dissertations under the same title. Wade, T. R. 1988. A grammar of the Kashmiri language as spoken in the valley of Kashmir, North India, London. Presents a brief grammatical sketch of Kashmiri with some text in Kashmiri. Wali, Kashi 1980. Oblique Causee and passive explanations. In Linguistic Inquiry 11.1, pp. 258-260. It contains information on Kashmiri causatives. Wali, Kashi 1981. Cause, causer, and causee: A semantic prespective. In Journal of Linguistics 17, pp. 289-308. Contains information on Kashmiri Casusatives. Wali, Kashi 1983. Clicts and Case: A Cross Language Perspective. In davison, Alice (ed.) Proceedings of SALA University of Iowa, pp. 394-408. Wali, Kashi 1988. A note on WH questions in Marathi and Kashmiri. In Cornell Working Papers in Linguistics. no. 8. Fall 1988. Wali, Kashi 2002. WH-Questions in Marathi and Kashmiri. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 1-16. New Delhi: Creative. Wali, Kashi and Ashok Kumar Koul 1992. Kashmiri Critics and Ergative and Structure. Paper presented in SALA-14, Stanford University. Wali, Kashi and Ashok Kumar Koul 1994. Kashmiri Clitics and Ergative Case. Indian Linguistics, vol. 55, pp. 77-95. Wali, Kashi and Ashok Kumar Koul 1994. Kashmiri Clitics: the role of cause and CASE. In Linguistics 32, pp. 969-994. Wali, Kashi and Ashok Kumar Koul 1996. Subject and other constituents in Kashmiri. South Asian Language Review vol. vi, no.1. constituents in Kashmiri. South Asian Language Review vol. vi, no.1. Wali, Kashi and Ashok K. Koul 2002. Kashmiri Clitics: The role of Case and CASE. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 17-42. New Delhi: Creative. Wali, Kashi and Omkar N. Koul 1997. Kashmiri: A Congetive Descriptive Grammar. London and New York: Routledge. This book provides a description of Kashmiri syntax, morphology, phonology, ideophones and interjections, and lexicon. Syntax is dealt in detail. Some of the syntactic aspects have been dealt for the first time. It will serve as a useful reference for Kashmiri grammar. Wali, Kashi and Omkar N. Koul 2003. Case doubling in Kashmiri Possessive : Another look. Paper presented in the ICOSAL-5, Moscow University, Moscow. Wali, Kashi and Omkar N Koul 2002. Long shadows of Ergativity in Kashmiri and Marathi. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 43-62. New Delhi: Creative. Wali, Kashi, Omkar N Koul and Ashok K Koul 2002. Multiple Case Marking in Kashmiri Possessive: Tranditional and Modern Perspective. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 63-86. New Delhi: Creative. Wali, Kashi, Omkar N Koul and Ashok K Koul 2002. The Significance of Topic in a V2 Language: Evidence from Kashmiri. In Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics, eds. Omkar N. Koul and Kashi Wali, 87-102. New Delhi: Creative. Wali, Kashi, O. N. Koul, P. E. Hook and A. K. Koul 2000. Lexical anaphors and pronouns in Kashmiri. In Lexical Anaphors and Pronouns in Selected South Asian Languages, eds. Barbara C. Lust et al., 471-512. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Zakharyin, Boris A. 1981. Stroj I tipologija jazyki Kashmiri (The structure and the typology of the Kashmiri Language) Moscow: Moscow State University, pp. 287. Contains a preface in which the sociolinguistic status of Kashmiri is reviewed and chapters dealing with phonology, grammatical categories, and the main problem of Kashmiri syntax. The concluding chapter discusses the place of Kashmiri among other Central Asian Languages on the basis of typological criteria. Zakharyin, Boris A. 1984. Kashmiri and typology of South Asian Languages. In Koul, Omkar N. and Peter Edwin Hook (eds.) Aspect of Kashmiri Linguistics. New Delhi: Bahri Publications. Zakharyin, Boris A. 2002. Review of Topics in Kashmiri Linguistics (eds.) Omkar N Koul and Kashi Wali.In South Asian Language Review, vol. xii. 4. Sociolinguistics Very limited sociolinguistic work has been conducted in Kashmiri so far. Besides the regional dialects of Kashmiri there are certain sociolinguistic variations in the speech of people belonging to different religious communities and professional groups. It is important to study the speech variations of different communities and of the people of different professions and occupations. There are marked differences in the use of certain lexical items in the speech and writing of two main communities. Hindus and Muslims – who speak the language natively. Grierson (1911) and later Kachru (1969) have listed certain linguistics characteristics of the speech of Hindus and Muslims. Whereas Grierson uses the terms Hindu Kashmiri and Muslim Kashmiri to distinguish these two varieties, Kachru prefers to use the terms Sanskritized and Persianized Kashmiri for these two varieties respectively. The so-called varieties, however, are not exclusively Hindu and Muslim, but are important from the point of view of registers and diglossia. M. Koul (1986) has studied sociolinguistic variables of Kashmiri spoken in Anantrang district of the state and that of the Srinagar. His study primarily points out the phonological and morphological variations in the speech of Hindus and Muslims and between the people belonging to rural and urban areas. Similarly, Dhar (1985) has pointed out the sociolinguistic variations of Kashmiri spoken in Sopore (Baramulla). Kantroo (1985) has studied variations of Kashmiri by certain minority communities and occupational groups. The first ever sociolinguistic survey of Kashmiri conducted by Koul and Schmidt (1983) studies language use and language preference of the native speakers of Kashmiri. Whereas Kashmiri is widely used in its social domains of day-to-day life, it is not used in administration. It has a limited use in education and mass media. According to the survey, there is a strong desire for its use in administration and education. Koul (1998) has studied language maintenance and language loss of the Kashmiri migrant children in Jammu and Delhi. The study reveals the loss of Kashmiri in the formal domains, and its maintenance is certain restricted social domains. As a part of the survey of the language preferences in education in India, Koul (2001) has presented the preferences in respect of the use of languages in education by the native speakers of Kashmiri. No any other kind of survey has been conducted so far. There is a wide scope for both sociolinguistic research and surveys in Kashmiri. loss of the Kashmiri migrant children in Jammu and Delhi. The study reveals the loss of Kashmiri in the formal domains, and its maintenance is certain restricted social domains. As a part of the survey of the language preferences in education in India, Koul (2001) has presented the preferences in respect of the use of languages in education by the native speakers of Kashmiri. No any other kind of survey has been conducted so far. There is a wide scope for both sociolinguistic research and surveys in Kashmiri. Bibliographic reference of main sociolinguistic works related to Kashmiri are given below: Bhat, Raj Nath 1990. Religion, Gender and Courtesy: Reflection on Kashmiri Honour System. In Research Journal of Kurukshtra University, no. XXIV, pp. 179-191. Bhatt, Rakesh 1983. Language maintenance and Language Shift: the case of Kashmiri in Kashmiri setting. M. Phil dissertation, University of Delhi (unpublished). Bhatt, Rakesh Mohan 1989. Language planning and language conflict: the case of Kashmiri. In International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 75.73-86. Dhar, Nazir A. 1985. A sociolinguistic study of Kamarazi dialect of Kashmiri. (Ph.D. dissertation) University of Poona. It investigates some sociolinguistic variables which distinguish the speech of Kashmiri spoken in Sopore (Baramulla district) in the valley of Kashmiri. The speech of Hindus and Muslims have been studied. The variations of their speech have been distinguished from that of the speech in Srinagar. Fatima, Aziz 1987. Code switching in Kashmiri-Urdu bilingual speech: A study of linguistic and social interaction. M. Phil dissertation, Aligarh Muslim University (unpublished). Presents some interesting examples of the code switching in Kashmiri. The research is related to some recent theoretical research conducted in this area. examples of the code switching in Kashmiri. The research is related to some recent theoretical research conducted in this area. Hasnain, S. Imtiaz 1985. Review of Kashmiri: A sociolinguistic survey, by Omkar N. Koul and Ruth Laila Schmidt. IAAL, vol. II, no. 1-2. Kachru, Braj B. 1986. Naming in the Kashmiri Pandit community: sociolinguistics and anthroponomy. In Fishman, Joshua A. et. al. (eds.) The Feregusonian impact, vol. 2: Socio-linguistics and the sociology of language. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 141-154. Kantroo, Gopi Krishen 1985. Minority languages in Kashmiri: A sociolinguistic investigation. Doctoral dissertation, Kurukshetra University (unpublished). Besides an introduction, it contains chapters on linguistic minorities and their social satisfaction, an overview of sociolinguistics, sociolinguistic variable in minorities, bilingualism in minorities, and the conclusion. It presents an interesting data from the speech of linguistic minorities in Kashmiri. Koul, Vijay Kr. 1993. Review of A Sociolinguistic Study of Kashmiri by Maharaj Krishen Koul. In South Asian Language Review, vol. iii, no.1. Koul, Maharaj K. 1986. A sociolinguistic study of Kashmiri, Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. A first attempt to correlate linguistic diversities and social satisfaction of Kashmiri speech community and Srinagar and Anantrang (two districts in the Kashmir Valley of the State of Jammu and Kashmir). The book is divided in six chapters: (1) Introduction, (2) Review of literature on sociolinguistics, (3) Social satisfaction, (4) Sociolinguistic variables, (5) Style switching and the use of speech and (6) Sociolinguistic variation in the use lexical items. These chapters are followed by conclusion and select bibliography. Koul, Omkar N. and Ruth Laila Schmidt 1983. Kashmiri: A sociolinguistic survey. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. This is a first ever survey related to the use of Kashmiri. It presents the analysis and results of a sociolinguistic survey on the use of language and language preference by the native speakers of Kashmiri in various domains of day-to-day life. . and Ruth Laila Schmidt 1983. Kashmiri: A sociolinguistic survey. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. This is a first ever survey related to the use of Kashmiri. It presents the analysis and results of a sociolinguistic survey on the use of language and language preference by the native speakers of Kashmiri in various domains of day-to-day life. Koul, Omkar N. 1983. Kashmiri Hindi-urdu: a study in bilingualism. In Towards greater heights, vol. II. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Presents the variations of Hindi-Urdu spoken by native speakers of Kashmiri. The deviations are analysed at different linguistic levels. It has pedagogical implications for learning Hindi-Urdu as a second language by the native speakers of Kashmiri. Koul, Omkar N. 1984. Modes of address in Kashmiri. Koul and Hook (eds.). Aspects of Kashmiri Linguistics pp. 154-172. Describes different types (interjections, kinship terms, second person pronouns) of modes of address and their use in three dyadic (social, professional and familial) relations. Koul, Omkar N. 1985. Personal names in Kashmiri. Paper presented in the South Asian Languages Analysis Conference at the university of Michigan, Ann Arbor. Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Personal names in Kashmiri. In South Asian Language Review, vol. iv, no. 1. pp. 53-74. Also in Koul, Omkar N. (ed.) 1995. Sociolinguistics: South Asian Perspectives. New Delhi: Creative Books. Koul, Omkar N. 1995. Surnames and nicknames in Kashmiri. In Mehrotra, R.R. (ed.) The Book of Indian Names. New Delhi: Rupa & Co. Koul, Omkar N. 1998. Language Maintenance and Language Loss of Kashmiri Migrant children. Paper presented in seminar on sociolinguistics at University of Delhi. Koul, Omkar N. 2001. Language Preferences in Education in India. In Daswani, C.J. (ed.) Language Education in Multilingual India.New Delhi: UNESCO. Pp. 337-383. It includes the study of languge preferences by the native speakers of Kashmiri in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. India. In Daswani, C.J. (ed.) Language Education in Multilingual India.New Delhi: UNESCO. Pp. 337-383. It includes the study of languge preferences by the native speakers of Kashmiri in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. Koul, Omkar N. 2004. The Kashmiri Language and Society. In Kaw, M. K. (ed.) Kashmir and its People.New Delhi: APH Publishing Corporation. Pp. 293-321. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming). Studies in Kashmiri. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies. It has chapters on personal names, kinship terms, modes of greetings of Kashmiri. Mahapatra, B. P. et al. 1989. Kashmiri. Kloss, H. and G. D. McConnell (eds.) The written languages of the world: A survey of degree and modes of use,. 2. India, Book 1. Constitutional languages. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, pp. 247-273. Presents a survey of the degree and modes of use of Kashmiri and its dialects. It also points out linguistic characteristics and useful reference framework of the language. Mahfooz Jan 1993. k%:shiren h&nden ke:ntsan tabkan h&nz. tabq%:ti: bbo:li (professional dialects of Kashmiri). Ph. D. dissertations, University of Kashmir. It discusses different registers of Kashmiri used by people belonging to different professions. 5. Lexicography Lexicographical work in Kashmiri is still in infancy. A limited number of monolingual, bilingual and trilingual dictionaries have been produced in Kashmiri so far. Kashmiri shares a bulk of vocabulary items with other Dardic languages. It has also borrowed with adaptation a large number of vocabulary items from Sanskrit, Persian, and more recently from English. There are regular rules for adaptation of borrowed lexical items in Kashmiri. For instance, Kashmiri does not have voiced aspirated constonants /bh, dh, d,h, gh, jh/, fricatives /x, G /, and unvular stop /q/. These sounds in borrowed lexical items are replaced by /b, d, d,, g, j, kh, g and k/ respectively (e.g., la:bh = la:b ‘profit’, dhan = dan ‘wealth’, d,ho:l = d,o:'l ‘drum’, ghar = gar(‘home’, jhand,a: = jand,(‘flag’, xa:s = kha:s ‘special’, Gari:b = g)ri:b ‘poor’, qalam = kalam ‘pen’). The dental stop /t/ is lost in the final position if it is preceed by /s/ or /sh/. (e.g., darxa:st = darkha:s ‘application’, a:bg:osht = a:bgo:sh ‘a mutton preparation’). Kashmiri has largely developed its registers of religion, business, and law from the lexical items borrowed from Persian (and Arabic). It is mostly on the basis of the choice of the use of certain borrowed lexical items that the speech of Hindus and Muslims is sometimes distinguished. Muslims trend to make use of the borrowed Persian lexical items and Hindus prefer to borrow Sanskrit lexical items, e.g., Muslims Hindu a:b po:)ny ‘water’ kh*da: bagva:n ‘God’ ruh pra:n ‘soul’ akhta:b siriyi ‘sun’ kha:b sopun ‘dream’ etc. The borrowed lexical items are adapted according to the phonological system of Kashmiri. phonological system of Kashmiri. In comparison to other modern Indian languages, lexicographical works on Kashmiri commenced very late. No lexicographical works were written before the middle of 19th century. Lexicographical works on Kashmiri fall under different categories: vocabularies, glossaries and dictionaries. A number of attempts have been made by native speakers of Kashmiri to compile dictionaries in Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit towards the middles of the 19th century. It is believed that Sonti Pandit compiled a Kashmiri -Persian dictionary in 1859. This dictionary remained unpublished and is not available now. Some other attempts were made by other scholars as well, but are not available in completed form now. Pandit Ishvara Kaul (d.1893) made a first serious attempt to prepare a Kashmiri-Sanskrit dictionary, but could not complete it before his death. Grierson (1916-1932) compiled A dictionary of Kashmiri Language partly from materials left by Late Pandit Ishvara Kaul. He was assisted by Mahamohapadhyaya Mukundram Shastri. This dictionary was published by the Royal Asiatic Study of Bengal in four parts. This is first comprehensive Kashmiri- English dictionary available. Most of the lexical items are explained in Sanskrit as well. The lexical entries are given in Roman script with transliteration in Devanagari. It explains idioms and phrases in detail. It makes use of Kashmiri texts and gives quite useful references of the same wherever necessary. Grierson has used English alphabetic order for this dictionary with additions and modifications wherever necessary to suit the sound system of Kashmiri. Jammu and Kashmir Accadmey of Art, Culture and Languages launched a project of compilation of Kashmiri - Kashmiri and Urdu -Kashmiri dictionaries in sixties. Both these dictionaries have been published in several volumes each. The k+:shir Dictionary: (Kashmiri Dictionary) is published in seven volumes : (vol. I in 1972, vol. II in 1973, vol. 4 in 1974, vol. V in 1977, vol. VI in 1978, and vol. VII in 1979). This dictionary has been compiled by the editorial board consisting of S.K. Toshkhani as the chief editor, and J.L. Kaul, Mohi-UI-Din Hanjini, P.N. Pushp, and Akhtar Mohi-UI-Din. This is first Kashmiri-Kashmiri dictionary. It provides the etymology of Kashmiri lexical items and explains their meaning. It also explains idioms and proverbs. The entries are listed in Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) script. The compilers have attempted to make use of almost all the lexical items used in Grierson’s Dictionary and added the new terms and expression as well which are currently being used in spoken as well as literary Kashmiri. khani as the chief editor, and J.L. Kaul, Mohi-UI-Din Hanjini, P.N. Pushp, and Akhtar Mohi-UI-Din. This is first Kashmiri-Kashmiri dictionary. It provides the etymology of Kashmiri lexical items and explains their meaning. It also explains idioms and proverbs. The entries are listed in Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) script. The compilers have attempted to make use of almost all the lexical items used in Grierson’s Dictionary and added the new terms and expression as well which are currently being used in spoken as well as literary Kashmiri. The Urdu-Kashmiri Farhang (Urdu-Kashmiri Dictionary) has been published in nine volumes: (vol. I in 1967, vol. II in 1973, vol. III in 1974, vol. IV in 1975, vol. V in 1976, vol. VI in 1977, and vol. VII in 1978; vol. VIII in 1979 and vol. XI in 1980). This dictionary has been compiled by the editorial board comprising of S.K. Toshkhani as the chief editor, and other members namely A. Rehman Rahi, Hamidi Kashmiri, Abdul Rashid Nazki, and Mohan Nirash. It explains Urdu lexical items, idioms and some other phrases (including proverbs) in Kashmiri. A Hindi-Kashmiri dictionary has been compiled by Rattan Lal Shant et.al. and published by the Central Hindi Directorate, New Delhi in 1980. This is the first dictionary of this type. A Punjabi-Kashmiri dictionary complied by Omkar N. Koul and Rattan Talashi and is published by the Language Department, Government of Punjab, Patiala in 1999. Besides the above dictionaries, number of vocabularies and glossaries of Kashmiri have been prepared and published so far. Some of these vocabularies and glossaries have formed parts of other works related to Kashmiri, and others independently prepared for different purposes. Some of major works are: Edgeworth’s (1814) Grammar and Vocabulary of Kashmiri Language, Godwin Auston’s (1866) Vocabulary of English, Balti and Kashmiri, Bowring’s (1866) Vocabulary of Kashmiri Language forming an Appendix D in Sir George Compbell’s Ethnology of India. Elmslie (1870) ‘List of Kashmiri words’, was followed by more detailed work by him entitled Vocabulary of Kashmiri Language in 2 parts. (Part I: Kashmiri-English, and Part II: English-Kashmiri. Grierson’ Standard Manual of the Kashmiri Language (2 volumes) originally published in 1911 and reprinted in 1973 contains Kashmiri-English vocabulary besides grammar. Neve (1973) provides a short list of English-Kashmiri vocabulary in 58 pages. The author’s primary aim has been to provide the visitor to Kashmiri with a list of words for quick reference. Kachru (1973) has also provided a Glossary as volume. 2 of his An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri divided into two parts: Kashmiri-English, and English-Kashmiri. miri-English vocabulary besides grammar. Neve (1973) provides a short list of English-Kashmiri vocabulary in 58 pages. The author’s primary aim has been to provide the visitor to Kashmiri with a list of words for quick reference. Kachru (1973) has also provided a Glossary as volume. 2 of his An Introduction to Spoken Kashmiri divided into two parts: Kashmiri-English, and English-Kashmiri. Handoo and Handoo (1975) have prepared Hindi-Kashmiri Common vocabulary. Here the Vocabulary is divided into four sections: 1. Words of similar shape and same meanings, 2. Words with slightly different shape but same meaning, 3. Words of similar shape with different meaning, and 4. Words with similar and additional meanings. The vocabulary is listed in both Devanagri as well as Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) scripts. A Kashmiri-English Glossary listing about 5000 words has been prepared by Koul et. al.(1976). It uses both Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) and Roman scripts for Kashmiri. The revised version of this Glossary is published by the CIIL under the title Kashmiri-English Dictionary for Second Language Learners (2000). Some lexicographical works are available on Kashmiri proverbs, saying and riddles. Prominent among such works are Knowles (1885) A dictionary of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings explained and illustrated from the rich and interesting folklore of the Valley. Koul (1992) has compiled A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs based on primary and secondary sources. Koul (2000) provides a Kashmiri-Kashmiri dictionary of Kashmiri proverbs. Knowles (1997) has also compiled a list of Kashmiri Riddles. Anand Koul (1933) has published two articles entitled “Kashmiri Riddles” and ”Kashmiri Proverbs”. This presents Kashmiri proverbs with their literal translations, and idiomatic equivalents or explanations in English. The above review of lexicographical works in Kashmiri suggests that much needs to be done in the area of lexicography in Kashmiri. The out of print materials need to be reprinted as early as possible. There is a strong need for the preparation of a good pedagogical Kashmiri-Hindi-English and English-Hindi- Kashmiri dictionaries. This would facilitate the teaching of Kashmiri as a second/foreign language, as well as teaching of Hindi and English to native speakers of Kashmiri. Bibliographical reference and annotations of main lexicographical works in Kashmiri are given below: Central Hindi Directorate 1988. Hindi-Kashmiri angrezi: tribhasha kosh (Hindi-Kashmiri English Triangular Dictionary) vols. I-III (vol. I pp. viii+1008, vol. II pp. iii+804, vol. III pp. iii+404). New Delhi: Central Hindi Directorate. It is a first triangular dictionary presenting Kashmiri and English equivalents of the lexical items of Hindi. Kashmiri entries are given in both Perso-Arabic as well as Devanagri script thus facilitating its use by those native speakers of Kashmiri as well as those who are not proficient in the Perso-Arabic script. Central Hindi Directorate 1989. Hindi-Kashmiri dictionary. New Delhi: Central Hindi Directorate. It is a first bilingual dictionary of Kashmiri related to Hindi and Kashmiri. The Kashmiri vocabulary is written in modified Perso-Arabic script to suit the Kashmiri pronunciation. Elmslie, W. J. 1872. A Vocabulary of the Kashmiri language. Part I: Kashmiri-English. Part 2: English-Kashmiri. London. Grierson, George A. 1916-1932. A Dictionary of the Kashmiri Language compiled partly from Materials left by the Late Pandit Ishwara Kaul. Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal. Part I 1916, Part II 1924, Part III 1929, and Part IV 1932. The first comprehensive dictionary of Kashmiri-English Dictionary , which is now out of print. It is compiled by Grierson with the assistance of the Mahamohapadhyaya Mukundram Shastri (a native speaker of Kashmiri). It gives lexical items in Roman and Devanagari scripts. Most of the Kashmiri lexical items are translated into Sanskrit and then into English. Idioms and Phrases are explained in detail. Handoo, Jawaharlal and Lalita Handoo 1925. Hindi-Kashmiri common vocabulary. Mysore: CIIL. pp. xii+292. The vocabulary is divided into four sections: 1. words of similar shape and same meaning, 2. words with slightly different shape but same meaning, 3. words of similar shape with different meanings 4. common words with similar and additional meanings. The vocabulary is given in Devanagari and as well as Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) script. shape and same meaning, 2. words with slightly different shape but same meaning, 3. words of similar shape with different meanings 4. common words with similar and additional meanings. The vocabulary is given in Devanagari and as well as Kashmiri (Perso-Arabic) script. Kantoo, Gopi Krishen 1980. Lexical variation in Puj dialect of Kashmiri. M.A. Thesis. Kurukshetra University. Lists lexical items used by Kashmiri butchers. Knowles, James Hinton 1885. A Dictionary of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings, explained and illustrated from the rich and interesting folklore of the valley. Provides a first detailed dictionary of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings. Most of the proverbs and sayings are obsolete now. Some appear mare literal translations of Persian proverbs and sayings. The roman phonetic transcriptions does not provide exact pronunciation. It is a useful reference for further research in this area. Koul, Ashok Kumar 1986. Lexical Borrowings in Kashmiri. Kurukshetra University, Ph. D. dissertations (unpublished). Provides a linguistic description of the Perso-Arabic and English lexical borrowings in Kashmiri. It is the first detailed study in this area. Koul, Omkar N. 1984. Lexicography in Kashmiri. Kashir Khabar. Presents a brief survey of lexicographical works in Kashmir. Koul, Omkar N., S.N. Raina and R.K. Bhat 1976. Kashmiri- English glossary. Patiala: Northern Regional Language Center. (Mimeo) 300p.It is a compilation of most frequent vocabulary of Kashmiri used in both oral and written modes of communication. Koul, Omkar N., S.N. Raina and R.K. Bhat (2000) A Kashmiri-dictionary for Second Language Learners. Mysore: CIIL. It is a revised version of Kashmir-English Glossary (1976). Kashmir-English Glossary (1976). Koul, Omkar N. 1992. A dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. pp. viii+160. Provides literal and idiomatic translations of about 1300 very frequently used Kashmiri proverbs into English. Kashmiri proverbs are listed alphabetically using Roman script. A useful reference for further research in this area. Neve, Ernest F. 1973. English-Kashmiri vocabulary. Jammu: Light and Life Publishers, pp. 58. It provides a short list of English-Kashmiri Vocabulary. The author’s primary aim has been “to provide the visitor to Kashmiri with a list of words for quick reference”. Toshkhani, S.K. (chief editor) 1967-1980. Urdu-Kashmiri Farhang (Urdu-kahmiri Dictionary) vol. I-IX. Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar. vol. I 1967, vol. II 1973, vol. III 1974, vol. IV 1975, vol. V 1976, vol. VI 1977, vol. VII 1978, vol. VIII 1979. A first Urdu-Kashmiri dictionary compiled by the chief editor and the editorial board consisting of A. Rahman Rahi, Hamid Kashmiri, Abdul Rashid Nazki and Mohan Nirash. It explains meanings of Urdu lexical items in Kashmiri and also explains idioms and proverbs. Toshkhani, S.K. 1980. Kashmiri Dictionary. Misra, B.G.(ed.) Lexicography in India. Mysore: CIIL 1981, pp. 89-90. Introduces and describes the project of the preparation of the Kashmiri-Kashmiri and Urdu-Kashmiri dictionaries taken up by J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar. This paper was written in 1970. Toshkhani, S.K. (Chief Editor) 1968-1980, k,:šir d,ikshanari: (Kashmiri-Kashmiri Dictionary) Vols. I-IX. Jammu & Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Srinagar. 6. Socio-Cultural and Historical Studies The study of socio-cultural aspects of the people and its interference with historical developments has been an interesting area of scholarship as far as Kashmir is concerned. Kashmiri has attached attention of different historians, politicians, sociologists, linguistics, anthropologists, journalists, etc. who have written about the socio-cultural and historical aspects from their own points of view. Both native and no-native scholars have equally been attached to it. As a result of it, a large number of studies are available in different languages: Sanskrit, Persian, English, Urdu, Hindi, Kashmiri, etc. These works are of different types. They describe different socio-cultural, political and historical upheavals the valley of Kashmir has undergone from the earliest period to recent times. Some works present chronology of different historical events, some present political commentaries on the problems of rulers and ruled class, other present socio-cultural surveys of the people, and their life who have witnessed ups and downs in the valley. Most of the historical treatese written in Sanskrit and Persian are concerned with the presentation of the main account of rulers and historical events. They have not bothered to write about the welfare or socio-cultural aspects of the ruled class. Even the title of Kalhan’s Rajatarangin,i written in the 12th century makes it clear that it is a ‘history of Kings’. This earliest work is followed by different additions and versions contributed by other scholars. Similarly, the histories written in Persian during the medieval and early modern periods have been largely written about the rulers and their governance or mis-governance. The practice has been to write about the glory of certain rulers under the patronage of power. Such works are not important from the socio-cultural point if view. They also distort the realities. Things have changed lately. During the modern period, various attempts have been made to present an objective overview of socio-cultural aspects of the people and the historical events people have gone through. Some studies deal with purely socio-cultural aspects of the people, and others presents a chronology of historical events in conjunction with socio-cultural survey of people. -cultural aspects of the people and the historical events people have gone through. Some studies deal with purely socio-cultural aspects of the people, and others presents a chronology of historical events in conjunction with socio-cultural survey of people. Kashmir has witnessed political upheavals. People have largely suffered under the misrule of both alien and native rulers during different times. The present-day situation in the valley has something to do with the simmering problems which have continued for long. Genuine grievances of the people have not been redressed under one pretext or the other. Even after independence the situation has not improved. The political masters have not paid adequate attention to the sufferings of the people. Due to en-masse rigging and unfair elections, people are denied their constitutional rights which promise them a democratic form of government in the true sense of the term. No attempts have been made to present the ethics and value system of the people in an unbiased way or objective so far. Bibliography references and annotations of the prominent works related to the socio-cultural aspects of the people and historical studies are given below: Akbar, M.J. 1991. Kashmir: beyond the vale. New Delhi: Viking Penguin India, pp. x+232. Presents a chronological account of prominent socio-cultural aspects, historical events and political ups and downs the valley has undergone. The book is divided into three sections: The ripples of falling empires; love, politics and other tragedies; and cold blood. Akhtar, Bashir 1984. twari:ki aqva:mi Kashmir (History of Kashmiri people) Mohammed Din Fauq. In so:n adab pp. 151-62. Presents a critical review of the book related to the description of communities and their surnames in Kashmiri written in Urdu. Bamzai, P.N.K. 1962. The History of Kashmir. Delhi: Metropolitan Book Company. Edition 1973. A first detailed political and socio-cultural history of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It presents a lucid account of all the prominent upheavals of the state from the beginning up to the period it is written. The author draws on heavily on the original and authentic sources and the description is quite objective. It is an important reference work for understanding the sociois written. The author draws on heavily on the original and authentic sources and the description is quite objective. It is an important reference work for understanding the sociocultural milieu of the people. Banihali, Marghub 1984. ba:gi sulaima:n. (The garden of Sulaiman). In so:n adab pp. 79-94. Presents a critical review of the history of Kashmiri written by Syed Ali in Persian. Bhat, Ghulam Rasool 1984. ta:ri:khi Syed Ali. (History written by Syed Ali). In so:n adab pp. 54-63. Presents a critical review of the history of Kashmiri written by Sayed Ali in Persian. Charak, Sukhdev Singh 1980. History and culture of Himalyan states, vol. 5. Presents the historical description of the Jammu from the beginning of the Sikh kingdom set up at Lahore till Maharaj Gulb Singh’s rule in Jammu. Deambi, B.K. Kaul 1982. Corpus of Sarada inscriptions of Kashmir with special reference to origin and development of sarada script. Delhi: Agam kala Prakashan, pp. xx+184. It contains two main sections on 1. Origin and development of Sharada script and 2. Sharada inscriptions of Kashmiri- Jammu and Ladakh. The third sections gives appendices on decayed and lost inscription, Kashmiri names of the individual Sharada characters, and the Laukika (saptasi) Era. Dhar, Somnath 1991. Jammu and Kashmir. New Delhi: National Book Trust, pp. viii+212. First published in 1977. The book published under the series India-the Land and the People provides the basic information about the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It covers wide range of subjects including the land and the people, sources of Kasmiri history, earlier periods of the rules of Mughals, Afghans, Sikhs, Dogras and independence and after. It provides information on Kashmiri culture heritage, folklore, music, arts, crafts, monuments, tourism, etc. The general readers will find this book quite informative and useful. will find this book quite informative and useful. Drew, Frederich 1875. The Jummoo and Kashmir territories. A geographical account. London: E. Stanford. Reprinted Karachi: Indus Publications 1980. xiii, 568 p. Frontispiece, illustrations collection of folding maps, plans, diagrams, genealogical tables, and one folded map in pocket. A useful description of geography of the region. It contains information about the routs and travelling distances as they existed a century ago. It also contains ethnographic and linguistic notes, some of which have been incorporated into Grierson 1919, vol. 8, Part 2. Fazili, Manzur 1984. k-ši:r by G.M.D. Sufi. In so:n adab, pp. 163-70. Presents a critical review of the history of Kashmir written by G.M.D. Sufi bringing out salient features of the book. Ganahar, J.N. 1987. k-ši:ri h.nd’ bo:dh. (Budhists of Kashmir). In so:n adab, pp. 122-27. Presents mainly the review of the book Buddhists of Kashmir, which describes the salient features of the Buddhists movement in Kashmir. Hasnain, Fida Mohammad 1984. History of Muslim rule in Kashmiri by R.K. Parimoo. In so:n adab pp. 171-78. Presents a critical review of the book highlighting the strong points and weakness. Ibrahim, Malwi Mohammad 1984. ta:ri:khe kashmi:r (History of Kashmir) by Birbal Kachru. In so:n adab, pp. 95-115. Presents a critical review of the history of Kashmir written by Birbal Kachru in Persian upto the period of 1845. Ibrahim, Mohammad 1987. Mulla Abdul Quadir Badyuni h/ndis muntak-hab ta:rikhas manz kAshi:r (Kashmir as described in the short history of Kashmir written by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badayuni). In so:n adab pp. 16-55. Presents a review of the description of Kashmiri in the Historical work written by Mulla Abdul Qadir Badayuni. The book reviewed is important. important. Jagmohan 1991. My Frozen Turbulence in Kashmir. New Delhi: Allied Published Pvt. Ltd. pp. xv+723. Presents the description of the events of the state of Jammu and Kashmir during the two terms of governorship of the author in the state in his historical prospective. A well-documented analysis of the events is helpful in understanding the current socio-political problems of the state. Kalhana 1916. Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir. Translated, with an introduction, commentary and appendices by M.A. Stein. Reprinted Delhi: Motilal Banarasidass 1916, vol. 1: Introduction and Books 1-7 vol. 2: Notes, Geographical Memoir, Index, Maps. Kalhan’s (12 th cen.) Rajatarangini is a classic work on the history of Kashmir, which contains references to the Dards (Darad, Darada) and their country (Dard-desha). Kapoor, M.L. 1971. A history of medieval Kashmir. Jammu: A.R.B. Publications. The book comprises eleven chapters presenting description of the Sultanate, Zain-ul-Abdin Basdshah, his inheritors, Chaks, the spread of Islam, socioeconomic, position and the culture of the medieval Kashmir. Kapoor, M.L. 1975. Eminent rulers of ancient Kashmiri. Delhi: Oriental Publishers. The author presents the description of the ten kings namely Lalitaditya, Jayaped, Awanti Verman. Rani Sughandha, Ded Rani. Sangam Raja, Anant. Kalash and Hasrsh. Towards the end he describes the fall of the Hindu dynasty. Kapoor, M.L. 1980. History of Jammu and Kashmir state. vol. I. The book is devided into ten chapters presenting an introduction and historical description related to the rule of Maharaja Ranjt Singh, Gulab Singh as the king of Jammu, expansion of the kingdom of Jammu, Gulab Singh and Punjab, Gulab Singh and Afghan war, the politics of Punjab, situation in Jammu etc. It is a first detailed attempt on the subject bringing out various issues related to the kingdom of Jammu. . It is a first detailed attempt on the subject bringing out various issues related to the kingdom of Jammu. Koul, Anand 1978. Geography of Jammu and Kashmir State. New Delhi: Manohar Books Service. pp. xii+164, Illustrations, photographs, maps. Originally published in the year 1925, the present edition is updated and includes an introduction by P.N.K. Bamzai. A general description of Jammu and Kashmir with chapters dealing with routes, the inhabitants, commerce, industries, natural calamities and places of interest. Useful in connection with Drew 1875. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming). Historical development of Kashmiri. Mishra, Vidya Niwas (ed.) An encyclopedia of Indian grammatical tradition. Calcutta: Bharatiya Bhasha Parishad. Discusses historical development of certain linguistics characteristics of Kashmiri. Majboor, Arjan Dev 1984. Review of History and culture of Himalayan states, vol. 5 by Sukhdev Singh Charak. In so:n adab, pp. 179-202. Presents a critical review of the history which is related to the history of Jammu with the belonging of the Sikh kingdom in Lahore till Maharaja Gulab Sing’s five years of kingdom. Pandit, Mohammad Amin 1984. Review of va:kiva:ti Kashmir. In so:n adab pp. 71-78. Presents a critical review of the history of Kashmir written by Mohammad Azam Dedmari in Persian and originally published in 1936. Another book reviewed is ta:ri:khe Kashmir Azmi. The review highlights the salient features of the book. Rafiqi, Mohammad Amin 1984. Review of ta:ri:xe Haidar Malik (History of Haider Malik). In so:n adab pp. 64-70. Presents a brief review of the history of Kashmir written by Haider Malik in Persian. The review deals with the description of Major aspects of the history as described in the book. Sadhu, S.L. 1984. Review of Rajatangin,i by Shreevar. In so:n adab, pp. 32-53. Presents a detailed review of the historical book bringing out salient features of the historical events described in the book and their importance. Rajatangin,i by Shreevar. In so:n adab, pp. 32-53. Presents a detailed review of the historical book bringing out salient features of the historical events described in the book and their importance. Sadhu, S.L. 1984. Elphinstone t0k1:ši:r. In so:n adab. 128-46. Presents the review of the description of the Kashmiri during the Afghan rule as described in the Kingdom of Kabul written by Mount Stuart Elphinstone, first published in 1814. Elphinstone has presented a vivid description of certain socio-cultural aspects of the people prevalent during that period. The review brings out the salient features of the historical descriptions made in the book under review. Saqi, Moti Lal 1984. Rajatangin,i by Kalhana. In so:n adab pp. 15-31. Presents a critical review of Kalhan’s Rajatangini highlinting important features of this important historical work. Saqi, Moti Lal 1987. ved, maha:bharat pora:n t0k1shi:r (Veds, Mahabharat, Purans and Kashmir). In so:n adab pp. 92-105. Described certain important clues find in the Vedas, Mahabharatas, and Puranas about Kashmiri and its people. It is well-researched article and reveals in-depth study of the author. Sufi, G.M.D. 1948-49. Kashir: Being a history of Kashmir from the earliest time to our own. Punjab University, Lahore. New Delhi: Light and Life Publishers (Reprint 1974). vol. I and II, pp. xxviii, 846. Appendix, pp. 258. Maps, illustrations and pictures. Contains chapters on Kashmir and the Kashmiri culture in the Pre-Islamic period. The spread of Islam in Kashmiri, the Sultans of Kashmir, Kashmir under the Chaks, Kashmir under the Mughuls, Kashmir under the Afghans, Letters and Literatures in Kashmir under Muslim rule. Arts and crafts in Kashmir under Muslim rule, civil and military organization under Muslim rule in Kashmiri, Kashmir under the Sikhs, and Kashmir under the Dogras. Sufi, G.M.D. 1979. Islamic culture in Kashmir. New Delhi: Light and Life publishers. pp. x+393. The author presents a general survey of the history of the Islamic culture in Kashmir. He provides a general description of Kashmir and Kashmiris, a brief outline of the pre-Islamic period, descriptions of the spread of Islam under the sultans, Mughals and Afghans. He also describes the advancement of learning development of arts and crafts and the civil military administration under the Muslim period. He also presents the salient features of Kashmir under the Sikhs and Dogras. The book is quite useful for the students of Kashmiri culture with special reference to the spread of Islam in Kashmir. Islamic culture in Kashmir. New Delhi: Light and Life publishers. pp. x+393. The author presents a general survey of the history of the Islamic culture in Kashmir. He provides a general description of Kashmir and Kashmiris, a brief outline of the pre-Islamic period, descriptions of the spread of Islam under the sultans, Mughals and Afghans. He also describes the advancement of learning development of arts and crafts and the civil military administration under the Muslim period. He also presents the salient features of Kashmir under the Sikhs and Dogras. The book is quite useful for the students of Kashmiri culture with special reference to the spread of Islam in Kashmir. Sultanpuri, Mashal 1984. Review of tari:kh-i-k2ši:r: akh mwakhsar tanqi:di: j3:yz4. (History of Kashmir: A brief critical review). In so:n adab pp. 137-50. Presents a critical review of the book written by Haji Mahi-ul-din Miskin. The review mentions the silent features of the book under review. Taing, Mohammad Yusuf 1984. guldasta Kashmir - dwad t4a:b (Gulistan Kashmir: A review). In so:n adab, pp. 116-36. Presents a critical review of Guldasta -Kashmir written by Pandit Gopal Koul Khasta in Urdu. This book narrates the history of Kashmir upto the period of 1887. The reviewer brings out the salient features of the book and arouses interest in the readers for reading the book in original. Taing, Mohammad Yusuf 1987. Hiuen Tsang: k2ši:ri h4nd. mwakht4 pit,a:ruk kunz4 barda:r. In so:n adab, pp. 56-81. Presents a review of Hiuen Tsang’s reference to Kashmir in his famous work of History related to India. 7. Folk Literature Kashmir has a long and rich tradition of folk literature. The earliest samples of folklore are available in cult-chants reflecting the philosophy of life. Some of such cult-chants, transformed into popular rhymes, cannot be understood easily. Some important Sanskrit texts like Brhatkatha: composed by Sanskrit poets of Kashmir (Kshmendra and Samadeva during the 11th century) are believed to have been based on Kashmiri folk tradition. Similarly, the themes of katha:saritsa:gar, panchatantra, etc. are also related to folk traditions. Folk-tales based on such texts have been adapted in different cultural contexts. For example, Persian renderings reflect different locale and names of characters. Some folk-tales of Kashmiri are based on the Persian version of old native themes. The folk-tales have undergone different improvisations. As in other languages, they are assimilated and improvised in Kashmiri as well to suit different occasions and cultural contexts. There are different genres of the Kashmiri folk literature: folk-tales, comic narratives, folksongs, proverbs, riddles etc. Folk tales are of different types presenting themes related to romance, adventure and miracles, anecdotal episodes, fables, fairy tales, ghost tales and tales of wit and wisdom. Most of them are found in Perso-Arabic and other Indian folk literature as well. Kashmiri has a typical comic narrative style called l5d,i:sha:h. It is balladic and recited accompanied by an iron jingle. The themes of this genre are natural calamities, social problems, economic exploitation, political oppression, etc. Folksongs are of various types: van6vun (marriage ceremony song), vastun (folk lyric), li:la: (devotional verse), na:t (lyrical tributes), manqibat (related to Muslim saints), chak6r (folk chorus), rov b5:th (folk song sung with a rov dance), manz6l’ b5:th (cradle songs), shur’ b 5:th (children songs), mata:m b5:th (songs related to death) are of two types: marsi: (grief songs), and va:n (bereavements verse). Besides the above genres, Kashmiri has a largest number of proverbs, saying and riddles. Kashmiri proverbs are of interest from the point of view of the style. A large number of proverbs and sayings are in the conversational style. proverbs, saying and riddles. Kashmiri proverbs are of interest from the point of view of the style. A large number of proverbs and sayings are in the conversational style. Kashmiri folk literature has not been studied in depth so far. Most of the folk literature is scattered and has not been properly compiled. There is a wide scope for research in different genres of Kashmiri folk literature. Bibliographical reference of the prominent works related to Kashmiri folk literature are as follows: Ahsan, Mohammad Ahsan 1975-76. kashmiri lo:k adab me• zira:fat (Satire in Kashmiri folk literature). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Andrabi, Mohammad Ahmad 1975-76. tio:ha:ru• : ke gi:t (Songs of festivals). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Akhtar, Bashir 1975-76. faslu• : ke gi:t (Songs of crops). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Afaq Aziz 1994. k7ši:r t8 amik’ ibtid 9:yii b9siki:n (Kashmir and its original inhabitants). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. Presents a socio-cultural and geographical survey of Kashmir of ancient times. Bashir, Bashar 1982-83. lo:k adab (Folk literature). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Bhat, Nur Mohammad 1979-80. mausi:qi: (Kashmiri music). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Bhagat, Mohammad Subhan 1979. k9:šur luk8the:t,ar (Kashmiri folk theatre). Srinagar: The University of Kashmir, pp. 156. An attempt to describe the main characteristics of Kashmiri folk theatre with the help of various examples of this type of theatre. Dulai, Narinder 1975. Kashmiri lo:k katha:vã: (Kashmiri folktales) Patiala: Bahsha Academy, pp. 112. A collection and rendering of Kashmiri folktales in Punjabi. Kashmiri lo:k katha:vã: (Kashmiri folktales) Patiala: Bahsha Academy, pp. 112. A collection and rendering of Kashmiri folktales in Punjabi. Handoo, Jawaharlal 1971. Kashmiri aur hendi ke lo:k gi:t (The folksongs of Kashmiri and Hindi ). Kurukshetra: Vishal Publications, pp. xvii+403. A revised version of the Ph. D. dissertations submitted to the Kurukshetra University. Presents a comparative study of Kashmiri and Hindi folk songs. Handoo, Lalita 1994. Structural Analysis of Kashmiri Folk Tales, Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages, pp. xiii+230. This presents a first detailed analysis of Kashmiri folk tales using Proppain methodology. The scholars and researchers will find it quite useful and will stimulate further interest in the study of Kashmiri folk literature. Hajini, Mohi-ud-Din 1975-76. kashmiri zaba:n ke nasri: lo:k adab ka: xa:ka: (An outline of the Kashmiri folk literature in Prose). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Kalla, Badri Nath 1980-81. k::šur še:vmat (Kashmir Shaiva Mata). Srinagar: University of Kashmir, pp. 120. Presents a brief survey and description of Kashmiri Shaiva philosophy in Kashmir. Kalla, Badri Nath 1980-81. Kashmir shaivmat (Kashmiri Shaivism). In Hama:ra: :dab, JKAACL. Kalla, K.L. 1985. Our Glorious Heritage. In Kalla, K.L. (ed.) The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. 1-9. Kalla, K.L. 1985. The culture of Kashmir. In Kalla, K.L. (ed.) The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. 10-17. Kalla, K.L. 1985. Some Supernatural Characteristics of Kashmiri Folklore. In Kalla, K.L. (ed.) The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. 236Kashmiri Folklore. In Kalla, K.L. (ed.) The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. 236 238. Kalla, K.L. 1985. The Merchants and His Seven Treasures. In Kalla, K.L. (ed.) The Literary Heritage of Kashmir, Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. 236-238. Knowles, James Hinton 1885. A dictionary of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings, explained and illustrated from the rich and interesting folklore of the valley. Bombay: Education Society’s Press. vii, 236 p. Knowles, James Hinton 1887. Kashmiri riddles. JRASB vol. 56, Part 1, pp. 125-154. Knowles, James Hinton 1893. Folk tales of Kashmir. London: Kegan Paul Trench, Trubner 1893. xxi, 510p. Glossary. Reprinted New York: Arno Press, 1977; and Islamabad: National Institute of folk Heritage, 1981. The author provides the narrator’s name, explanatory notes, and reference to other collections. Koul, Anand 1933. Kashmiri Riddles. Indian Antiquary. vol. 1xii, pp. 21-28. Koul, Anand 1933. Kashmiri Proverbs. Indian Antiquary. vol. 1xii, pp. 71-198. Koul, Omkar N. 1992. A Dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs. Patiala: Indian Institute of Language Studies. pp. viii+160. Provides a literal idiomatic translations of about 1300 very frequently used Kashmiri proverbs into English. Kashmiri proverbs are listed alphabetically using Roman Script. Lone, Ali Mohammad 1975-76. kašmi:ri: lo:k šairi:: ek ja:yza: (A study of Kashmiri folklore). In Hama:ra: adab, JKAACL. Munawar, Naji 1975-76. lo:k adab aur bacce (Children and folk literature). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. -76. lo:k adab aur bacce (Children and folk literature). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Nazir, Ghulam Nabi 1975-76. kashmiri kaha:vate• : aur inka: pas manzar (Kashmiri proverbs and their background). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Nazir, Ghulam Nabi (ed.) 1975. k;:shir luk<b=:th (Kashmiri folk songs) vol. 6 Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 277. Nazir, Ghulam Nabi 1988. k;:šir’ d ;pity (Kashmiri sayings). Srinagar: J&K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages. Provides explanations of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings from Kashmiri into Kashmiri. Nazik, Rashid 1979. reš kalt, t<s=:n’ reš (The Rishi cult and our Rishis). Srinagar: University of Kashmir, pp. 183. A first attempt to present in Kashmiri a brief description of the Rishi cult with special reference to Kashmiri Rishis. Nishat Ansari 1975-76. lad,i:sha:h: Kashmiri ki: ava:mi:zindagi: ka: tarjuma:n (Ladi Sha:h: A representation of the folk life of Kashmir). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Pardesi, Shyam Lal and Som Nath Sadhu (Compilers) k=:shir luk<b=:th (Kashmiri folk songs) Part VII. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 323. A collection of Kashmiri folksongs with an introduction. Pompur, Rosul 1975-76. lo:k adab aur zaba:n (Folk literature and language). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Pompur, Rosul 1979-80. mele aur tio:ha:r (Fairs and festivals). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Premi, Brij 1975-76. kashmiri lo:k gi:tu• : ka:sama:ji: pas manzar (A social background of Kashmiri folksongs). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Pushp, P.N. 1984. Folk Literature: Kashmiri. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerala Sahitya Akadmi and Macmillan. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerala Sahitya Akadmi and Macmillan. Qalandar, Quasir 1980-81. mausi:qi (Kashmiri music). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Saqi, Moti Lal 1067. k>:sir’luk ?b>:th. (Kashmiri folksongs) vol. II. Srinagar JKAACL pp. 238. A collection of Kashmiri folk songs along with an introduction and notes on certain lexical items. Saqi, Moti Lal and Naji Munawar (eds.) 1965. k>:shir’luk ?b>:th. (Kashmiri Folksongs), Srinagar: JKAACL. pp. 35. A collection of Kashmiri folk songs with an introduction by Ali Mohammad Lone. Saqi, Moti Lal 1975-76. sha:di: biya:h ke gi:t (Folk songs of marriages in Kashmiri). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Shad, Ghulam Mohammad 1975-76. lo:k adab aur ta:ri:x ka: ba:hmi: rabt (The mutual relationship between Kashmiri folk literature and history). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Shouq, Shafi 1975-76. lo:k adab aur ala:mtiyat (folk literature and symbolism). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. Sultanpuri, Mashal 1975-76. lo:k kaha:niyu• : par mubni: Kashmiri masnaviya• : (Kashmiri masnavis based on folk literature). In Hamara adab, JKAACL. 8. Literature The Kashmiri Literature can broadly be divided into four periods: 1. The Beginning (upto 1500), 2. Early Middle Period (1500-1750), 3. Late Middle Period (1750-1900), and 4. Modern Period (1900). We will make an attempt to point out salient features of literary activities during these periods. The Beginning The earliest use of Kashmiri as a written medium is found in commentaries interpolated in Sanskrit texts of Kashmiri Shavism written in the 12th and the 13th centuries. The beginning of Kashmiri literature is traced to apabbramsha-prakrit stanza preserved in early Sanskrit texts related to Kashmiri Shaivism such as tantrasara (c. 1015) by Abhinavagupta. They were meant to sum the doctrine for the common masses in their speech. Shitikanth’s mahanaya-prakasha (c.1250) is actually the finest complete text of Kashmiri. In its preface, the author writes that he has chosen to write in sarvagocarya deshbhasha (the language of the area spoken by the people). There are 74 sutras written in Kashmiri apbhransha in chummasampradaya (Chumma cult) written around 1150 A.D. The language used in it is close to Kashmiri of today. The Kashmiri language was primarily adopted by the Shaiva scholars for propagating their views and beliefs among the common masses. In the 14th century, Kashmir was adopted by Shaivite saints as the vehicle for expressing their mystical poetry in four-line stanzas (va:kh, from Sanskrit va:kya, ‘saying’). Lalla’s versus written in this style have become proverbial wisdom, quoted by Hindus and Muslims alike. Her younger contemporary, Nunda Rishi (also known as Sheikh Nur-ud-Din or Sahajanand), is another leading saint-poet often quoted today. His poetry composed in a meter called Shrukh (Sanskrit shloka:) is influenced by Sufi mysticism. The early period of Kashmir poetry is thus called the va:kh-shrukh period its hallmark is the blending of Hindus Shaivite and Muslims Sufi thought and traditions. The poetic compositions of the other poets of this period are not available. During this period, two religio-cultural traditions of Hindus and Muslims came face to face and it had an impact on the literary tradition which followed. traditions. The poetic compositions of the other poets of this period are not available. During this period, two religio-cultural traditions of Hindus and Muslims came face to face and it had an impact on the literary tradition which followed. Lalla (1335-1376) is considered as poet-philosopher or a seer, who is respected by Hindus and Muslims alike. Legends about her life and experiences are quite popular. According to popular belief, she was born at Pandrenthan near Srinagar and was married to Sona Pandit at Pampore at a tender age of twelve years. Her mother-in-law was cruel to her and did not treat her well. At the age of twenty-six, she renounced the family and accepted Srikantha as her spiritual Guru. She was not moved by pleasures or sorrows of life. Lalla’s poetical compositions have been transmitted orally from generation to generation. Total number of compositions attributed to her is around 150. The structure of va:kh is important from stylistic point of view. A number of them are composed in a simple ‘questionanswer style’. This technique is used in Kashmiri by several other poets. Her compositions are often quoted as sayings in day- to-day conversations and in both literary and oral texts. They express a rich experience of moral, and human experiences which are very much true even today. Like other saints, she has expressed her personal experiences of the universe. Her poetical compositions are valued in Kashmiri literature for their contents presenting philosophy and human messages and also for the unique style adopted by her. They have become part of proverbial wisdom of the people. Lalla is affectionately called Lal Ded (Grany Lalla) on lal m@:j (Mother Lalla). She has influenced a number of poets in Kashmiri. Lalla’s younger contemporary saint poet Sheikh Nur -ud-Din, is considered the founder of the Rishi Order in Kashmiri. He followed a style of shruk in the composition of poetry, the whole period is designated as va:kh-shrukh period. Most of his compositions express moral lessons. The va:kh-shrukh period was followed by a genere of narrative verse, of which two compositions survive. The bha:na:surkatha:, or bhat,tavta:r (mid-15th century), describes the love of Bhanasura’s daughter Usha for Krishna’s grandson Anirudh, within the framework of the war between Krishna and the demon Bhana. The sukh-dukha carit of Ganaka Prashasta (c. 1476) describes the aims and ideals of human life. the demon Bhana. The sukh-dukha carit of Ganaka Prashasta (c. 1476) describes the aims and ideals of human life. Early Middle Period This period is marked by the genres of love and devotional lyrics sung by poets. By this period, the Muslim Sultans had begun to patronize Persian scholarship, and Persian was eventually established as the court language. Nevertheless, a Kashmiri genre originating in folk poetry, called vatsun (Sanskrit vacana, ‘speech’) flourished during this period. In lo:l vatsun a poet sings of his/her lo:l (a word signifying an untranslatable complex of love and longing of heart). The lo:l lyric is a short poem of about six to ten lines which express a single mood. Its first and foremost poet is Haba Khatoon (16th century), who is composed lo:l vatsun, or love lyrics. Her singing is said to have captivated Prince Yusuf Shah Chak, who made her his consort. Yusuf Shah’s reign was short. He was defeated by the Mughal emperor Akbar and imprisoned in Bihar. In her lyrics, still sung today, Haba Khatoon described the sorrow of separation. Haba Khatoon’s lol brought Kashmiri poetry back from the mystical and idealistic plane of earlier poets to the joys and sorrows of everyday life. Her lyrics represent extreme simplicity of mind. The lo:l vastun tradition continued for two centuries, with compositions by Habibullah Nawshehri (1554-1617), Jumu Bibi (c. 1717), Rupa Bhavani (1621-1721), Arnimal, Svacha Kral and Shah Gafoor (18th century), as the most prominent poets. The romantic and mystic trends of Kashmiri continued for long. Arnimal (a forsaken wife of Persian poet of love lyrics) expressed her sorrows of life in a number of lyrics which are often recited for their melody. Most of the poetry written during this period is either lost or has become part of the folk literature. Due to the lack of patronage and encouragement at the hands of the rulers, most of the Kashmiri works are lost or their authorship is under dispute. It is the simplicity of this genre which is very close to human heart that enabled part of the literature to survive in Oral tradition. The Late Middle Period This period is marked by two parallel genres and style of Kashmiri literary compositions. On the one hand devotional lyrics based on Puranic legends and local folk traditions were composed by Hindu poets, and on the other hand, themes of love and religious themes based on Persian legends were adopted Muslims poets. In both types of compositions, there was influence of Persian narrative literary styles. This period is important in the development of a combination of Shaivite and Vaishnative thoughts. This was expressed in the literary works composed in Hindu saint poets, popularly known as Bhakts (devotees). In the so-called Bhakti literature of Kashmiri, age-old Kashmiri Shaivite thoughts were influenced by the Vaishnavite beliefs under the influence of the literature of other neighboring languages like Hindi, Punjabi etc. The theme of Bhakti (devotion) was expressed in two types of main genres: lyrics and narratives. The poets who adopted the genre of devotional lyrics were Prakash Ram (18th century), Parmanand (1791-1879) and Krishna Joo Razdan (1851-1926). Some compositions of the lo:l vatsun type can also be read as lila:yi vatsun, as the imagery of human love can be understood to represent the love between God and man. Prakash Ram has composed ra:ma:yan in Kashmiri based on folk legends prevalent at the time. While most of the legends are based on Valmiki’s Ramayana, some of the legends are original. For example, the legend about Sita’s birth. She is described in Ramayana as the daughter of Ravan. Prakash Ram used the narrative style with an influence of Persian borrowed vocabulary and metaphor. There are about seven Ramayanas written in the language. All these Ramayans are written in the same style combining the Persian narrative style and Kashmiri lo:l lyrics. Out of these, Prakash Ram’s Ramayana is most popular. Like legends about Rama, there are legends related to Krishna as well. Parmanand was quite successful in basing his work on Puranic legends and contemporary realities and environment. His prominent works are: ra:sli:la, shv-lagan, ra:dha:-svayamvar and suda:ma:-tsarith. He also uses a combination of narrative style and devotional lyrics. Though, his style is mostly Sanskritised, as far as the borrowings of vocabulary is concerned, however, he uses Persian similarities and metaphors very frequently. His devotional songs written in li:la: style are quite popular. He is followed by other prominent Hindu poets, who used the same style in narratives related to legend of Krishna and Shiva. Krishna Razdan in prominent among them. He composed his Shivapurana combining the narration and li:la: lyrics using very simple style. This Hindu Shavite-Vaishnavite tradition of poetry continued for long and is even now followed by compositions written in li:la: lyric style. style is mostly Sanskritised, as far as the borrowings of vocabulary is concerned, however, he uses Persian similarities and metaphors very frequently. His devotional songs written in li:la: style are quite popular. He is followed by other prominent Hindu poets, who used the same style in narratives related to legend of Krishna and Shiva. Krishna Razdan in prominent among them. He composed his Shivapurana combining the narration and li:la: lyrics using very simple style. This Hindu Shavite-Vaishnavite tradition of poetry continued for long and is even now followed by compositions written in li:la: lyric style. The rov vatsun or lyrics to accompany rov (a folk dance) were composed by Mahmud Gami (1759-1855), Shams Faqir (1843-1904) and Maqbool Shah Kralvari (d.1875), among others. And, finally a genre of mystical lyrics, or sufiya:n. vatsun, emerged during the 19th century with compositions by Shah Gafoor (c. 1850), Svacha Kral (c. 1860) and Shams Faqir. The sufiya:nAvatsun, draws its themes from Muslim Sufi tradition, whereas li:la:yi vatsun is inspired by Hindu Motifs. Kashmiri literature has borrowed the masnavi (narrative verse) from the Persian tradition and elaborated it into several sub-genres. These include lo:l masnavi: (Romantic tales), dali:l masnavi: (based on folk legends such as of Alif Laila, Hatim Tai, etc.), razm masnavi: (themes related to the Prophet’s life), sufiya:nAmasnavi: (themes from Sufism), and avta:r masnavi: (incarnation legends from the Hindu epics). Other genres borrowed from Persian and Arabic include the marsi (elegy), gazal (independent rhymed couplets) and nazm (rhymed couplets with a connecting theme). The Islamic faith was expressed in the na:t (addressed to Prophet) genre. This has its roots in the folk tradition and has been first used by Mahmud Gami. Most of the masnavi: poets wrote na:t. In his na:t genre, Abdul Ahad Nadim used the folk form of the vanAvun which became quite popular. The poets sang of divine love and mostly remained unconcerned with the agonies and day to day suffering of people. There were poets who sang the love lyrics unmindful of the life like realities. The genres of gazal and nazm developed under the influence of Persian and later Urdu. Mahmud Gami is considered the first Kashmiri poet of gazal. He wrote vatsans too. His gazals and vatsans are not always distinguished beyond doubt. Following a Persian tradition, in the gazal and vatsuns of Mahmud Gami, a woman is a lover and she addresses a man – her beloved, in the pang of separation. gazal. He wrote vatsans too. His gazals and vatsans are not always distinguished beyond doubt. Following a Persian tradition, in the gazal and vatsuns of Mahmud Gami, a woman is a lover and she addresses a man – her beloved, in the pang of separation. The gazals was introduced by Mahmud Gami, in Kashmir. It was not free from Persian influence at the levels of the use of vocabulary, metaphors and similes. It was Rasul Mir (18101870) who made quite a few innovations in this genre. In his composition, man and woman address each other according to the appropriateness of context. Rasul Mir’s gazal is free from the influence of mystical jargon and Persian influence. He was born and brought up in a village Duru (Anantnag district) and was charmed by the beauty of nature and people. He talks about his charming sweetheart of extraordinary beauty – ‘Kong’ by name in several poems. He felt deep pain at her separation after her marriage and expressed his heartfelt feelings in several poems. He excelled in both simplicity of content and expressions. His imagery is surcharged with emotion and simplicity of mind. His poems are pieces of art developed in thematic content, sensibility and technical sophistication. His poems are quite popular from the point of view of rhythm. He has made significant contribution in using very effective metaphors and idioms of the language. He brought the use of language very close to the expressions of human heart. The Modern Period The modern period is marked for some quite significant developments as far as the Kashmiri literature is concerned. The most important being the beginning and development of different genres in prose. Prose literature appeared with the Kashmiri translation of the Bible in 1827, Secular prose genres developed later with the first drama in 1923, the first short story in 1950, and the first novel in 1955. The adoption of Kashmiri as a medium for radio and television has done much to foster the development of the Drama in Kashmiri, whereas the weaker role of print media has handicapped writers of short stories and novels. The silent features of Kashmiri poetry and prose during the modern period are given below. atures of Kashmiri poetry and prose during the modern period are given below. Poetry A large number of innovations have taken place in genres of poetry during this period under the influence of English and other modern Indian languages. Ghulam Ahmad Mahjoor (18851952), Abdul Ahad Azad (1906-1948) ushered the concept of modernity by expressing the feelings of the people, Their sorrows, pains and expectations. Instead of singing divine lore, the poets gave expressions to the hard realities of life. Azad is called a revolutionary poet of Kashmiri. He had a revolutionary bent of mind, and was in favor of resulting social, economic, political orders and values. He was deeply moved by the miseries of common man who suffered under the unjust social, political and economic bondages. He insists that the aim of life is to struggle against injustice and inequality without fear. Azad has made some significant innovations in both theme and art of expression. He wrote shikwa-B-Bbli:s (Complaint of Satan)which was quite new to Kashmiri. It is written in the genre of a nazm on a very revolutionary theme. It provides a complaint of Satan questioning God’s wisdom in creating the world. Azad established himself as a good critic of Kashmiri poetry. He compiled a history of Kashmiri language and poetry in Urdu which was published posthumously in three volumes. It presents the first critial survey of Kashmiri poetry in detail. Mahjoor is also treated as a revolutionary poet. His entire poetry is divided into three parts: kala:m-B-Mahjoor, Paya:m-B- Mahjoor, and sala:m-B-Mahjoor. He was a patriotic poet and was moved by the suffering of the people under the alien rule. He awakened the common masses towards the need of protecting their homeland from invaders and alien rulers. He sang about beauty and charm of the valley. Mahjoor has made a significant contribution to genres of gazal and nazm. He retrieved the language itself from the old Personalized styles of poetry and brought it close to the speech of its native speakers. Master Zinda Kaul (1886-1966) has contributed a great deal to the modern poetry. Though his poetry is largely mystical. His poems are distinguished for their in-depth mystical meanings. Quite a few of his poems represent the struggle of mind between the modernity and tradition. His poems present a quality of broad vision. It is the content of hidden or mystical meanings which makes his poems different for other contemporary poets. -depth mystical meanings. Quite a few of his poems represent the struggle of mind between the modernity and tradition. His poems present a quality of broad vision. It is the content of hidden or mystical meanings which makes his poems different for other contemporary poets. The Kashmiri poet took a sharp turn as a consequence of happenings after the partition of the country in 1947. The Kashmir valley witnessed an upheaval as a result of first conflict between Pakistan and India over the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The valley was attacked by the troops from across the border. Some poets were moved emotionally and raised a voice against the happenings and expressed their views about the situation which prevailed all around. Prominent among them are: Dina Nath Nadim (1916-1990), Ghulam Hassan Beg Arif (b.1910), Rahman Rahi (b. 1925). Amin Kamil (b.1924), Ghulam Rasool Santosh (1929-1997) etc. Nadim was influenced by the progressive movement and made significant innovations in the genre of poetry. Ghulam Hassan Beg Arif wrote nazms on cetain new social and patrotic themes. Beside writing nazm, he has made a special contribution to the genere of ruba:ya:t. Rahi was influenced by leftist and progressive literary ideologecies. In the beginning, he was influenced by the progressive literary movement. His gazals are distinguished for their imaginary, mataphor and direction. He has several volumes of poems to his credit. He got Sahitya Akadmi award on his collection navroz-e-saba:. Rahi has written largely symbolic poems. He gave up the progressive writing and adopted new themes and stylistic directions. He appears to be influenced by existionalistic phenomena. His poems express his own experiences presented in his own unique style. Kamil also started writing poetry under the influence of progressive movement and drifted towards self-experiential aspects. He turned inwards and became philosophical in expression. His collection of poems lavCtC paravCgot Sahitya Akadmi award. Among other prominent poets who were deeply influenced by the contemporary socioeconomic and political problems, we may mention Nur Mohammed Roshan (1919-1997), Ghulam Nabi Firaq (b.1922), Prem Nath Koul Arpan (1919-1997), Shamboo Nath Bhat Halim (b.1924), Arjan Dev Majboor (b. 1926), Ghulam Nabi Firaq (b.1922), Vasudev Reh (1926-2001) etc. They have written on the themes of patriotism, nationalism and nature. 1926), Ghulam Nabi Firaq (b.1922), Vasudev Reh (1926-2001) etc. They have written on the themes of patriotism, nationalism and nature. The contemporary Kashmiri poets have taken up all the modern thmes prevalent in other Indian languages. They have made significant innovations in styles. Most of these poets are influenced by contemporary English and Urdu poetry. This period is not represented by a particular poet or a special trend. Prominent poets are: Ghulam Nabi Nazir (b. 1930), Muzaffar Azim (b. 1934), Ghulam Nabi Khayal (1936), Moti Lal Saqi (1936-1999), Chaman Lal Chaman (1937-1996), Rafiq Raz (b. 1952) etc. Prose As mentioned above, this period is important from the point of view of the development of various genres in prose: Short story, Novel, Drama, Criticism, etc. Kashmiri short story developed only after the progressive movement had influenceed the literary circles and the ‘cultural Congress’ was established. The short story has undergone different phases. Somnath Zutshi’s (1922 -1996) short story ‘yeli phol ga:sh’ (When there was Dawn) and Dinanath Nadim’s ‘javD:bi: ka:rD’ (A Reply Card) written in 1950 were presented in the meeting of Cultural Congress and later apperaed in the same issue of Kongposh. They were followed by short stories written by some other writers. Mostly the short story writers described the social backwardness and oppression on the poor in a descriptive style. They were largely carried away by the ideological commitements and did not bother much about the art of writing. An important phrase in Kashmiri short story began with the short stories written by Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din (19282001). His first collection of short stories sath sangar (seven pinnacles) published in 1955 got Sahitya Akadmi award. His short stories open up new vistas of observation and rich experience. They provide a new conciousness in the art of story writing. Some of his short stories like ‘dand vazun’ (Bickerings) and ‘darya:yi hund ye:za:r’ (The Silken Trousers) are widely acclaimed and are considered masterpieces even today. darya:yi hund ye:za:r’ (The Silken Trousers) are widely acclaimed and are considered masterpieces even today. Akhtar’s short stories had an impact on the stor ies written by several others including Sofi Ghulam Mohammad. Other short story writers who have made their name in Kashmiri are Amin Kamil (b. 924), Umesh Koul (b. 1929), G.R. Rahbar (b. 1933), Hari Krishen Kaul (b. 1935), Farooq Masoodi (b. 1935), H.K. Bharati (b. 1937), Ratanlal Shant (b. 1938), Shankar Raina (1939-1975), Omkar Koul (b. 1941), Roopkrishen Bhat (b.1955), Mahfooza Jan, etc. The short stories written by these writers are characterized by imaginative exploration of the sorroundings, distinct Kashmiri colour, and the depicting of socio-cultural patterns of people. It is not possible to indicate a particular short story writer or a particular theme as the representative of this period. There are prominent individual characteristics. Bansi Nirdosh’s short stories included in his collection a:dam chu yithay badna:m (It is not a Man’s Fault) are dominated by the realistic point of view. Similarly, Raina’s collection of short stories zitni zu:l (Illumination) presents a combinations of realism and romanticism. The short stories of Harikrishen Kaul in his collections partEla:ra:n parbath, yath ra:zda:ni, and zu:l apF:rim present hard realities of the human relationships in a complex social and political environment. Shant’s short stories in his collection Gcharva:lan pet,h koh, and triku• :jal depict neo-realishtic view and relationships. His short stories included in his recent collection rF:v’m Et’ ma:ne: are mostly symbolic and are of interest to the scholars of sociology and philosophy. These short stories go beyond the human relationaships. Masood’s short stories present the helplessness and the ups and downs of destiny one is confronted with. Bhat’s short stories present the present-day hard realities a Kashmiri community is faced with in recent years. Most of the contemporary short stories of Kashmiri present symbolism and the state of mind which is burdened with ever growing demands and unfulfilled desires and passions. Only a limited number of novels have been written in Kashmiri. They do not make a tradition. The genre has developed neither thematically nor in style. The novels appear more experimental and have not made any significant mark so far. Three novels were written and published almost at the same time. Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din wrote do:d tHdag (The pain and Anguish) in 1957. It revolves around a social theme which appear unrealistic, in which two sisters become victims of the lust of the main charrecter which ultimately bring anguish and pain. Amin Kamil’s novel gat,i manz ga:sh (Light Amid Darkness, 1957) is written on the theme of tribal raid on Kashmiri in 1947. He has used a narrative style of da:sta:n (We too are Human, 1957) deals with a journey to the Holy cave of Amarnath. It is written in a documentary style and reads more like a reportage than a novel. time. Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din wrote do:d tHdag (The pain and Anguish) in 1957. It revolves around a social theme which appear unrealistic, in which two sisters become victims of the lust of the main charrecter which ultimately bring anguish and pain. Amin Kamil’s novel gat,i manz ga:sh (Light Amid Darkness, 1957) is written on the theme of tribal raid on Kashmiri in 1947. He has used a narrative style of da:sta:n (We too are Human, 1957) deals with a journey to the Holy cave of Amarnath. It is written in a documentary style and reads more like a reportage than a novel. There was a long gap between the above three novels and the other attempts which followed due to the limited relationship. Ghulam Nabi Gauhar (b. 1934) has written two novels: mujrim (Convicted, 1967) and myul (Reunion, 1973). The first presents a long and tiresome narration of a criminal case being decided in courts. It fails to create the suspence. The dialogues do not present a natural flow. His second novel is even less satisfying. It presents a very unconvincting theme. The style is not impressive. Bansi Nirdosh’s novel akh do:Ir (En Epoch, 1974) relates to the social theme of prostitution. Though the theme touches the human emotions they lay out and the characterization is weak. Amar Malmohi’s novel tre:sh tHtarpan (Water and ablution to Dead, 1976) is unique in both theme as well as expression. In short the genre of novel has not fully developed in Kashmiri so far. Drama in Kashmiri has its roots in the folk drama dances of ba• :d,HpI:thHr, roph and damI:l’ . The literary dramas in Kashmri started with Nand lal Kaul’s (1870 -1940) satHc kIhvIt, (The Touchstone of Truth, 1929) presenting a Pluralic theme of the story of Harishchandra and Taramati, was enacted widely. The dialogues were Sanskritized and it catered to the interests of a particular community. The formation of Cultural Front had an impact in the development of the genre. One act plays like d,a:lar sIJb and akh bat,a: tre (One by three, 1949) became popular. The theare went to the people and performed throughout the valley. The cultural Congress did yeomen service in introducing plays in Kashmiri. The genre of drama has developed as a result of setting up of Radio Kashmiri and later Television Centre in Srinagar. A large number of plays have been specially written for the above media. A number of operas have been written in Kashmiri. Dinanath Nadim has written several operas. His operas bombur yambarzal (The Bumblebee and Narcissus, 1953), ni:ki: tKbLdi: (Good and Evil, 1956), hi:ma:l nLg’ra:y (Hemal and Nagraj, 1956), shihil’ kul (The Shady Treem 1965), and veth (Vitasta, 1976) have been staged and have become very popular. Amin Kamil and Muzzaffar Azim have written some operas in same style. Noted among the Kashmiri playwrights are Ali Mohammad Lone, Pushkar Bhan (b. 1925) Motilal Kemmu (b. 1934), and Hari Krishen Kaul. Lone’s suyya: based on a historical charrecter has been widely acclaimed. He won Sahitya Akademi Award on it. His other plays like a:dam, hava: tKibli:s (Adam, Eve and Satan), are quite popular. Kemmu’s plays yinsa:ph (Justice), tsha:y (The shade), harmukhukh L:nK(The Mirror of Harmukh) have been acted several times. His collection of plays truc has won Sahitya Akadmi award. Besides the original plays written in Kashmiri, some plays from other languages have been translated into Kashmiri. Radio Kashmiri and later Television Centre in Srinagar. A large number of plays have been specially written for the above media. A number of operas have been written in Kashmiri. Dinanath Nadim has written several operas. His operas bombur yambarzal (The Bumblebee and Narcissus, 1953), ni:ki: tKbLdi: (Good and Evil, 1956), hi:ma:l nLg’ra:y (Hemal and Nagraj, 1956), shihil’ kul (The Shady Treem 1965), and veth (Vitasta, 1976) have been staged and have become very popular. Amin Kamil and Muzzaffar Azim have written some operas in same style. Noted among the Kashmiri playwrights are Ali Mohammad Lone, Pushkar Bhan (b. 1925) Motilal Kemmu (b. 1934), and Hari Krishen Kaul. Lone’s suyya: based on a historical charrecter has been widely acclaimed. He won Sahitya Akademi Award on it. His other plays like a:dam, hava: tKibli:s (Adam, Eve and Satan), are quite popular. Kemmu’s plays yinsa:ph (Justice), tsha:y (The shade), harmukhukh L:nK(The Mirror of Harmukh) have been acted several times. His collection of plays truc has won Sahitya Akadmi award. Besides the original plays written in Kashmiri, some plays from other languages have been translated into Kashmiri. The genre of literary criticism has not developed fully so far. The earlier examples of literary criticism in Kashmiri are examples in the form of essays written in collage magazines or periodicals brought out from time to time beginning with 1936 when a Kashmiri section was added to Pratap a local college journal. A number of journals were started and have ceased publicaion now: Kong posh (1949), Gulrez (1952), Vatan (1965), Chaman (1965) etc. The journals Shiraza (Kashmiri), of Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, Anhar of the University of Kashmir, Bavath of Bavath Cultural Society and A:lav of Jammua and Kashmir, government continue to publish regularly. They occasionally publish literary articles. Radio Kashmir played a role of broadcast of various literary talks. The other form of literary criticism is availiable in the form of introduction written to anthologies etc. The survey of Kashmiri literature are presented in two books written in Kashmiri: kL:shiri adbbuk tL:ri:kh vol I (A History of Kashmiri literature, 1965) by Autar Krishen Rahbar, and Munwar and Shafi Shauq. Besides these books Ghulam Nabi Nazir’s kMshir shM:yri: (Kashmiri poetry) and Motilal Saqi’s ga:shir’ presents a general survey of Kashmiri poetry. Other recent publications kMshir shM:yri: (Kashmiri poetry) and Motilal Saqi’s ga:shir’ presents a general survey of Kashmiri poetry. Other recent publications devoted to literary criticism in Kahsmiri are written by Motilal Saqi, Amin Kamil, Arjan Dev Majboor, Sayed Rasul Pompur, etc. There has been no serious theoritical base or basses of literary criticism in Kashmir for a long period of time. Rahman Rahi and Ghulam Nabi Firaq (b. 1922) introduced Marxism style of literary critisism. They brought literary and literature criticism very close to politics. Rahi changed his style lately. His style reflected in kMhvMt, (The Touchstone, 1979) is influenced by the author’s self consiousness. He has provided some new dimensions to the form of literary criticism. Most of other works are influenced by the western point of view. As far as other genres in prose are concerned only a limited number of essays, travelogues, biographies etc. have been written so far. Mohhamad Zaman Azurda has brought out two collections: phikri hNnz t,akNr (1980) and essay (1984). He won a Sahitya Akadmi Award on his second collection. Rasul Pompur has also published collection of essays -yath a:dNm’ vanas manz (1985), and ke• h natNke• h (1991). He won a Sahitya Akadmi Award on his second collection of essays. Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din has written sala:va:mir as a travelogue on his first visit to former Soviet Union in 1968. A special issue of so:n adab journal (1979) has been devoted to travelogues. Biographical literature in Kashmiri is still in infacy. To sum up, Kashmiri literature has developed under different influences during diffent periods. As Kashmiri has never been assigned serious roles in administration and education in its its home state, the development of Kashmiri literature has been indipendent of any State patronage and encouragement. The literary forms written in Kashmiri had to compete with the works in Sanskrit, Persian and non-native literatures written in the state. The literature has survived through the earlier period on the basis of its marit alone. In comparison to other major Indian languages, all the genres of prose have not developed adequately in the language due to limited readership. Once this language is assigned adequate roles in administration, education and mass media, these genres will develop at the same pace as in other major Indian languages. major Indian languages. The Kashmiri literature has not been studied in depth so far. It is only in last two decades or so, some serious research work has begun in this area. The Jammu and Kashmir Academy of Art, Culture and Languages, the university of Kashmir have made some serious efforts in this direction. Some other agencies and individuals are also involved in the resarch work in Kashmiri. Besides serious research work in Kashmiri, it is important to conduct comparative studies of different literary genres of Kashmiri with those of other major Indian languages. Some efforts have been made by different scholars in this regard. Some such comparative studies have been made in the form of doctoral dissertations submited to different Universities. Most of the comparisons have been made with Hindi and Urdu literatures. There is a need to translate prominent literary works of Kashmiri into other languages. Not much work has been done in this regard. Bibliographical reference of prominent works devoted to Kashmiri literatures are as follows: Afaq Aziz 2002. kuliya:t-i-Shamas Faqir (Complete works of Shamas Faqir). Srinagar: Nund Reshi Cultural Society. The complete works of Shamas Faqir are preceeded by a detailed introduction, justification and a critical appraisal of Shamas Faqir by the compiler and a chapter contributed by Mohammad Yusuf Taing. Ahmad, Shams-ud-Din (ed.) 1959. Shams Faqir. Srinagar: JKAACL, p. 71. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Shames Faqir -a noted poet of Kashmiri, translated into Urdu by the editor. Akhtar Mohi-ud-Din 1984. General Prose: Kashmiri. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Afaq Aziz 1994. sha:hna:mOO:ra:n ti kP:shur adab (Shahnama of Iran and Kashmiri literature). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. Discusses the tradition of writing Shahnamas in Iran and Kashmiri. It depicts the influence of Persian on Kashmiri and the indigeneous charrecteristics of Kashmiri renderings. sha:hna:mOO:ra:n ti kP:shur adab (Shahnama of Iran and Kashmiri literature). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. Discusses the tradition of writing Shahnamas in Iran and Kashmiri. It depicts the influence of Persian on Kashmiri and the indigeneous charrecteristics of Kashmiri renderings. Afaq Aziz and Mahfooz Jan 1989. kP:shir masnavi:- akh tanqi:di: sa:m (Kashmiri Masnavi: A critical study). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. Discusses different aspects of Masnavi in Kashmiri. Afaq Aziz and Mahfooz Jan 1989. sombran (Collection). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. It is a collection of articles related to different aspects and genres of Kashmiri literarure. Azad, Abdul Ahad 1959-1963. kP:shir zaba:n aur sha:iri: (in Urdu) Vols. I-III. Srinagar J & K Academy of Art, Culture and Languages. vol. I, pp. 218 (1959), vol. II pp. 489 (1962), vol. III, pp. 278 (1963). The vol. I of the book presents a brief introduction to the Kashmiri language, its dialects and its genealogical classification. The section on Kashmiri dialects is interesting. The book presents a first detailed survey of Kashmiri literature from the beginning to the early modern period. Badgami, Shahid 1979. kP:shiri marsi hund tawP:rikh (A literary history of Kashmiri elergy) 1322-1979. Badgam: Published by the author, pp. 376. Chaman, Chaman Lal and Bashir Akhtar 1972. Pvha:l namOvol. I, Srinagar: The University of Kashmir, pp. 316. Presents brief introductory notesd on selected men of letters of Kashmiri in Kashmiri. Batsh, Ghulam Mohammad 1984. Kashmiri Gazal par Urdu Gazal ke asra:t (The influence of Urdu Gazal on Kashmiri Gazal). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kashmir (unpublished). Bhat, Mohammad Ramzan (Mashal Sultanpuri) 1984. Urdu aur Kashmiri shairi: me• taraqi: pasand rahjuva:t (Progressive Elements of Urdu and Kashmiri poetry). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kashmir (unpublishd). Sultanpuri) 1984. Urdu aur Kashmiri shairi: me• taraqi: pasand rahjuva:t (Progressive Elements of Urdu and Kashmiri poetry). Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Kashmir (unpublishd). Bhat, Noor Mohammad 1960-62. kashmiri sha:yri me• mozu:a:ti: tabdi:liya• : (Changes of themes in Kashmiri poetry). In Hamara adab. JKAACL. Fayaz, Farooq 2001. zaba:n, adab tQtR:ri:kh (Language, Literature and History). Srinagar: Nunposh Publications.P. 214. Presents aspects of Kashmiri folk literature as well as some literary works of Kashmiri writers from the historical perspective. Firaq, Ghulam Nabi 1981. adbi: istilah (Literary terms). Srinagar: The University of Kashmir. pp. 222. Describes literary terms used in Kashmiri. Firaq, Ghulam Nabi 1980. nRv sha:rQsombran (New collection of poems). Srinagar: University of Kashmir. pp. 198. A collection of selected pieces of poetry written by various poets from Lal Ded to the present period. Firaq, Ghulam Nabi 1984. Literary Criticism: Kashmiri. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature. Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Fitrat Kashmiri, Maulana (ed.). 1959. Haqani. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 69. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Azizulla haqani and translated into Urdu by the editor. Ganju, Padam Nath (ed.) 1967. kuliyati a:za:d, Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 637. Complete poetry of Abdul Ahad Azad with an introduction. Hajini, Mohi-ud-Din 1967.maka:la:t. Srinagar. A collection of seven essays written in Kashmiri on different aspects of Kashmiri language and literature (including one on Tagore). The essay dealing with the early development of Kashmiri language is useful. ri language and literature (including one on Tagore). The essay dealing with the early development of Kashmiri language is useful. Hajini, Mohi-ud-Din (ed.) 1960. kS:shir shS:yri:. (Kashmiri poetry). New Delhi Sahitya Akadmi, pp. 296. A selection of Kashmiri poetry of prominent Kashmiri poetsfrom early period to modern. Hajini, Mohi-ud-Din (ed.) 1959. Wahab Parey. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 72. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Wahab Parey, translated into Urdu by the editor. Hamidi, H.U. (ed.) 1969. Maqbul Kralwari. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 63. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Maqbool Shah Kralwaria noted poet of Kashmiri, translated into Urdu by the editor. Hashimi, Manzur 1973. sa:m na:mT(of Amir Shah Kreri). Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 534. Presents the mathnavi of Amir Shah Kreri with an introduction by the editor. Kachru, Braj B. 1981. Kashmiri literature. Gonda, Jan (Ed). A history of Indian Literature, vol. 8, Fasc. 4. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, ix, 114p. Presents a survey of all forms of Kashmiri literature from 1300 A.D. to the modern period. Treats Shaivite, Bhakti, Sufi, vatsan and lol traditions as well as modern poetry, prose and literary movements. The introduction describes the linguistic affinity of Kashmiri and formal traditions. Kalla, K.L. (ed.) 1985. The literary Heritage of Kashmir. Delhi: Mittal Publications, pp. ix + 307. It is a collection of 32 articles devotedto various aspects of Kashmiri language, literature and culture. The articles are contributed by different scolars including four by the editor himself. Kamil, Amin (ed.) 1972. kS:shir sufi shS:yri: (Kashmiri Sufi Poetry). Srinagar: JKAACL, vols. 1-3. Presents a selection of sufi mystic poetry of fourteen Kashmiri mystic poets with a detailed introduction. a detailed introduction. Kamil, Amin 1966. kU:shiri asan tra:yi (Kashmiri humour). Srinagar: JKAACl, pp. 287. A selection of different pieces of Kashmiri literature by different writers depicting humour and satire in Kashmiri. Kamil, Amin (ed.)1959. Habba Khatoon. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 97. A collection selected Kashmiri poems of Habba Khatoon and translated into Urdu by the editor. Kamil, Amin 1999. Mahjuurnen boonyen tal. Author, p. 208. A collection of critical and literary essays related to various aspects of Kashmri literature and literatures. Kaul, Bhushan Lal 2003. sa:hitya aur vistha:pan: sandarbh Kashmir. Jammu: Sanmukh Prakashan. It presents a critical appraisal of the poetry and plays written by prominent Kashmiri writers during the period of their migration from the valley. Kaul, Bhushan Lal 2003. arzath . Jammu: Nagrad Adbi Sangam. It is collection of fourteen critical articles devoted to Kashmiri culture, prominent Kashmiri poets, philiosophers and historians. While diealing with literature he has raised some important questions. It would be useful for the students of Kashmiri literature. Kaul, J.L. 1968. Studies in Kashmiri. Srinagar: Kapoor Brothers, pp. xi+339. Besides presenting a critical survey of some aspects of Kashmiri literature like poetry, prose, lullabies, humour, masnavi tradition. Kashmiri literature (1947-1967) etc. it has independent chapters on Lal Ded, Haba Khatoon and Arnimal, Parmanand and Zinda Kaul – some important poets of Kashmiri. Kaul, J.L. and Moti Lal Saqi (eds.) 1972. Parmanand vol. I, Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 555. A collection of selected poetry of Parmanand -a noted Kashmiri poet, with an introduction. Kaul, J.L. 1973. Lal Ded. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi pp. xii+147. Presents the life and legend of Lal Ded, the text, content of he vakh, her times and milieu, a reappraisal and English translation of her 138 vakhs (verse-sayings). Lal Ded. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi pp. xii+147. Presents the life and legend of Lal Ded, the text, content of he vakh, her times and milieu, a reappraisal and English translation of her 138 vakhs (verse-sayings). Kaul, J.L. and Nand Lal Kaul Talib (ed.) 1969. Lal Ded. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 168 Revised edition 1975, pp. 307. A collection of selected Kashmiri vakhs (Verse-sayings) of Lal Ded and translated into Urdu by the editor. Kaul, Zinda Parmanand su:ki-sa:r, vols. 1-3 Srinagar: Published by the editor, vol. 1 (1941), vol. 2 (1942), vol. 3 (1958). Presents devotional poetry of Permanand with an introduction. Khayal, Ghulam Nabi (ed.) Mohmud Gami. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 170. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Mahmud Gami – a noted poet of Kashmiri, translated into Urdu by editor. Khaya, G.N.(ed.) 1962. sa:m namV by Lakshman Kaul Bulbul. Srinagar JKAACL, pp. 152. A Kashmiri mathnavi written by Lakshman Kaul Bulbul with an introduction by the editor. Koul, Anand 1933. The wise sayings of Nand Rishi. Indian Antiquary, vol. lxii. Koul, Anand 1933. Lalla-vakyani: The wise sayings of Lal-Ded. Indian Antiquary. vol. lxii, pp. 108-111. Koul, Omkar N. 1974. Kashmiri aur hendi Ramakatha kavya ka tulnatmak adhyyan (A comparative study of Kashmiri and Hindi Ramakatha-kavya). New Delhi: Bahri Publications, pp. xi+348. Presents a comparative and critical study of prominent works of the legends of Rama written in Kashmiri and Hindi. Koul, Omkar N. 1991. Prose in Kashmiri. In Encyclopedia of Indian Literature. vol. IV, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. Presents the development of different genres like short story , novel, drama and criticism in Kashmiri. Encyclopedia of Indian Literature. vol. IV, New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. Presents the development of different genres like short story , novel, drama and criticism in Kashmiri. Koul, Omkar N. 1992. kashmiri kaha:niya• : (Kashmiri short stories translated from Kashmiri to Hindi). New Delhi: Vitasta. Koul, Omkar N. (Forthcoming). Kashmiri literature. In A Companion to Indian Literature. Calcutta: Oxford University Press. Koul, Omkar N. 1996. Kashmiri me• Krishna Ka:vya (Legends of Krishna in Kashmiri). In Shiraza (Hindi) vol. 32. Also in Braj Gaurav no. 2, 1997. Koul, Omkar N. 1997. Ramavtarcarit of Prakash Ram. In Masterpieces of Indian Literature, vol. 1 edited by K.M. George. New Delhi: National Book Trust. Koul, Omkar N. 1997. Radha Swayamvar of Parmanand. In Masterpieces of Indian Literature, vol. 1 edited by K.M. George. New Delhi: National Book Trust. Koul, Omkar N. and Narinder Dulai 1987. kashmi:ri: sa:hit da: itiha:s (A history of Kashmiri literature). Patiala: Punjab Univeristy. The book presents a brief survey of Kashmiri literature from the beginning to the modern period. It is the first book on Kashmiri literature written in Pujabi. Leitner, G.W. 1872. The Dastan Sheikh Shibli in Kashmiri verse, with an interlinear and a literal translation. Indian Antiquary, vol. 1, pp. 266-199. Lone, Ali Mohammad 1960-62. Kashmiri zaba:n me• bacu• : ka: adab (Children literature in Kashmiri). In Hamara adab JKAACL. Lone, Ali Mohammad 1984. Kashmiri Novel. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Lone, Ali Mohammad 1984. Kashmiri Drama. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akadmi and Macmillan. Mahfooz Jan 1994. Mohi-ul-Din hajini tWkX:shur adab (Mohiul- Din Hajini and Kashmiri literature). Srinagar: Bavath Publications. Describes the contribution made to Kashmiri literature by Mohi-ul-Din Hajini as a critic, poet, translator and editor. Majboor, Arjan Dev tahqeeq (Research) Author. 1999. Essay related to Kanshak , History and Culure of Himalyan States, History of Kashmir, Kashmir of Buddha and Hindu Period, Kashmiri folk songs, etc. Majeed, Gulshan 1984. Kashmiri movements and Institutions. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivandrum: Kerela Sahitya Akadmi and Macmillan. Majeed, Gulshan 1988. Mahjoor tYsama:j (Mahjoor and society). In Shiraza. Mahjoor Number. Majeed, Gulshan 1989. Kashmiri Shaivism and Sufism. In Dembi, B.K. Koul (ed.) Kashmri and Central Asia. Srinagar: University of Kashmir. Majeed, Gulshan 1991. naqd-W-sha:r (Criticism of poetry) Delhi: J K Offset Press. The book present a critical appraisal of Sheilh-ul-Alam’s poetry, shahna:ma: of Wahab Parey, Gul-I-Bakavli of Lassa Khan Fida, mysticism in Kashmiri poetry, modern sensibility, steam of conscience etc. It is useful for research and general readers. Majeed, Gulshan 1996. Lakshman Koul Bulbul. New Delhi: Sahitya Akadami. It presents an overall review of the life and works of Laskshman Koul Bulbul – a prominent poet of Kashmiri. It is published under the series of ‘Makers of Indian Literatiure’. – a prominent poet of Kashmiri. It is published under the series of ‘Makers of Indian Literatiure’. Malmohi, Amar 1969. husun, fan tZfanka:r (Beauty, art and artists). In vwalr[ky malar. Hajan: Halka Adab. Malmohi, Amar 1992. sha:stri: t[suufi: sh\^]yri: (Classical and Sufi poetry). In so:n adab. Malmohi, Amar 1982. lal dedi h[nz shashsiyath (The personality of Lal Ded). Adabi Markaz, Kamraz. Munawar, Naji and Shafi Shauq 1978. k\:shiri adbuk t\:ri:kh (A History of Kashmiri literature). Srinagar: University of Kashmir, pp. 292. The book presents a brief survey of Kashmiri literature from the beginning upto the modern period. The book is written in Kashmiri and is useful for the students of Kashmiri Literature. Munawar, Naji and Shafi Shauq 1992. nov k\: shiri adbuk t\:ri:kh (New History of Kashmiri Literature). Srinagar: University of Kashmir. pp. 402. A revised and enlarged edition of the authors 1978 edition. Nazir, Ghulam Nabi 1974. k\:sir sh\:yri: Yaripora: Kashir Mehfil pp. 180. Presents a critical survey of certain literary aspects of Kashmiri poetry. Nazki, A. Rashid (ed.) 1972. Kulyat-[-Nadim. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 207. A collection of Kashmiri poetry written by Abdul Ahad Nadim, with an introduction by the editor. Nazki, Ghulam Rasool (ed.) 1959. Abdul Ahad Nadim. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 105. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Abdul Ahad Nadim and translated into Urdu by the editor. Nazki, Ghulam Rasool 1960-62. Haba Khatoon se Wahab Parey tak (From Habba Khatun to Whab Parey). In Hamara adab JKAACL. -62. Haba Khatoon se Wahab Parey tak (From Habba Khatun to Whab Parey). In Hamara adab JKAACL. Pandit, Balaji Nath (ed.) 1965. k_:shur ra:ma:yan (Kashmiri Ramayan) of Pakistan Ram Kurigami. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 254. The text of the Kashmiri Ramayan based on the earlier versions has been presented with an introduction. Pompur, Sayed Rasul 1999. mye mashi n`za• :h (I will never forget). Author, p. 192. A collection of literary essays related to various literary scholars of Kashmir. Pushp, P.N. (ed.) 1962. Azad. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 79. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Abdul Azad and translated into Urdu by the editor. Pushp, P.N. (ed.) 1960. Mahjoor. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 97. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Ghulam Ahmad Mahjoor and translated into Urdu by the editor. Pushp, P.N. 1984. Traditional Poetry: Kashmiri. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivendrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Pushp, P.N. 1984. Modern Poetry: Kashmiri. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivendrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Rahbar, Autar Krishen 1965. k_:siri adb`c t_:ri:kh 1209-1775 (History of Kashmiri literature, from 1209 to 1775). Srinagar: Published by the author. Presents first comprehensive survey of early Kashmiri literature in Kashmiri. Rahbar, Autar Krishen and Ghulam Nabu Khyal (eds.) 1967. k_:shur nasar (Kashmiri prose). Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 551. A collection of selected pieces of prose in Kashmiri. Rahi, Rahman 1960-62. kashmiri sha:yri (Kashmiri poetry). In Hamara adab JKAACL. -62. kashmiri sha:yri (Kashmiri poetry). In Hamara adab JKAACL. Rahi, Rahman 1979. kahvat, (Touchstone). Srinagar pp. 312. It is a collection of critical essays on different aspects of literature with special reference to Kashmiri. It is written in Kashmiri and is useful for students of Kashmiri literature. Rahi, Rahman 1992. sha:yr-i-Kashmir Pirzanda Ghulam Ahmad Mahjoor (The Kashmiri poet Ghulam Mohammad Mahjoor). In Bazyaft, vol. 9, nos. 12-13. Raina, A.N. 1974. Zinda Kaul. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, pp. vii+51. Presents a brief life sketch of Zinda Kaul -a Kashmiri poet and mian characteristics of his poetry. Raina, Shiban Krishen 1972. Kashmiri bha:sha: aur sa:hitya (Kashmiri Language and Literature). Delhi: Sanmarg Prakashan. Presents a survey of Kashmiri literature from the beginning to the modern period in Hindi. Raina, Triloki Nath 1972. An anthology of modern Kashmiri verse (1930-1960). Poona, pp. 280. Presents English translation of selected Kashmiri poetry of prominent poets of the period. The origenal text is presented in Roman transcription alongwith a brief introduction of the poet. Romani, Premi (ed.) 1999. vyetshnay, Jammu: Rachna Publishers. A collection of literary essays written by Brij Premi. Essays are related to Urdu literary scholars. Saraf, Makhan Lal, Kashi:ri manz Dra:ma: tari:k. Jammu: Krishna Publications, 1999, pp. 367. Presents a critical survey of origin and development of Drana with reference to its development elsewhere. It deals at its development in Kashmir. Saqi, Moti Lal (ed.) 1973. kuliyat-b-Samad Mir. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 364. Compilation of the poetry of Samad Mir -a noted Kashmiri poet, with an introduction. kuliyat-b-Samad Mir. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 364. Compilation of the poetry of Samad Mir -a noted Kashmiri poet, with an introduction. Saqi, Moti Lal 1975. ga:shir’, Srinagar: The author, pp. 364 Essays on various literary aspects of Kashmiri written in Kashmiri. Saqi, Moti Lal 1985. na:val k’a: g cyi (What is novel?) Srinagar: University of Kashmir, pp. 174. Provides a description of the genre of novel and its types with special reference to the development of this genre in Kashmiri. A useful textbook. Saqi, Moti Lal 1988. Samad Mir. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi, pp. 92. Provides an introductory survey of the life sketch of Samad Mir, a renowed Kashmiri poet, and his contribution in Kashmiri poetry. Saqi, Moti Lal. Agarneeb, Author, 1988. A collection of critical essays related to History of Kashmir with special reference to Chinese, Greek, Budhist, Mahabharat and Puran, Ibroni, Kalhan, Stein & Kashmir etc. Sayil, Prithvi Nath Koul (ed.) 1981. RitsbDed. Srinagar, pp. 176. A collection of Kashmiri vakhs (verse-sayings) of Rits Ded -a saint poet of Kashmir with introduction by Dina Nath Nadim, Hari Krishen Koul Fani and the editor. Shamim, Shamim Ahmad 1959. kashmiri novel. In Hama:ra: Adab, JKAACL. Shamim, Shamim Ahmad 1960-62. Kashmiri zaban va adab ke chand masa:yil (Some problems of Kashmir Language and Literature). In Hama:ra adab, JKAACL. Shant, Ratan Lal 1981. nasrbc kita:b. Srinagar: The University of Kashmir, pp. 303. A compilation of pieces of prose written by different Kashmiri writers in Kashmiri with an introduction by the editor and a set of relevant questions at the end of each piece and prose. Useful for reading comprehension. tor and a set of relevant questions at the end of each piece and prose. Useful for reading comprehension. Shant, Ratan Lal 1984. Kashmiri Short Story. In George, K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivendrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Shant, Ratan Lal 1980. afsa:ndkya: gav (What is a short story?) Srinagar, University of Kashmir. Explains all the characteristics of a short story with a special reference to Kashmiri. Shant, Ratan Lal 1999. Kashmiri sa:hitya: sandarbh. Jammu. Presents a critical appraisal of some aspects of Kashmiri literature in Hindi. Shant, Ratan Lal (ed.) 2004. jalaayi vatnii hund adab (Literature of Exile). Jammu: Samprati. Proceedings of the Seminar held by SAMPRATI at Jammu. It describes the works written by the Kashmiri migrants in Kashmiri. Shauq, Shafi, 1980. zaba:n tdadab (Language and literature) Srinagar. No publisher mentioned, pp. 139. The author discusses different aspects of literary criticism, language, literature and style. It includes some essays on Kashmiri literature also. Shauq, Shafi, 1984. Childeren’s literature: Kashmiri. In George K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivendrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Shauq, Shafi, 1984. Biographical Writings: Kashmiri. In George K.M. (ed.) Comparative Indian Literature, Trivendrum: Kerela Sahitya Akademi and Macmillan. Taing, M.Y. (ed.) 1958. Rasul Mir, Srinagar. JKAACL, pp. 93. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Rasul Mir, translated into Urdu by the editor. Taing, Mohammad Yusuf 1964. Wali-Ullah-Mattu. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 143. Presents a life sketch and main characteristics of the poetry of Walli Ullah Mattu and a selection of his poetry. Mohammad Yusuf 1964. Wali-Ullah-Mattu. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 143. Presents a life sketch and main characteristics of the poetry of Walli Ullah Mattu and a selection of his poetry. Taing, Mohammad Yusuf 1965. Gulrez by Maqbool Shah Kralwari. Srinagar: JKAACL. pp. 241. The text of Gulrez is presented with an introduction and notes by the editor. Taing, Mohammad Yusuf 1991. mehju:r shine:si: (A critical study of Mahjoor). Srinagar. A collection of critical essays on Mahjoor. The students of Kashmiri literature will find these essays useful. Talashi, Ratan Lal 1995. Parmanand. New Delhi: Sahitya Akademi. The book is published under the series of Makers of Indian Literature. It presents a critical survey of the writings of Parmanad in Kashmiri. Talashi, Ratan Lal and Ratan Lal Johar (eds.) ezyuk ke:shur adab (Modern Kahsmiri Literature). Jammu: Sampreti, 1998. It is a collection of literary essays about Kashmiri contributed by Arjan Dev Majboor, R.L. Shant, Amar Malmohi, Mohanlal Ash, R.L. Talashi, Premi Romani, R.L. Johar, Makhanlal Saraf, Gauri Shankar, Raina and Prithavinath Bhat. Temple, Richard Carnac 1924. The world of Lalla the Prophetess, being the sayings of Lal Ded or Lal Siddi of Kashmir. Cambridge: University Press. Toshkhani, S.K. (ed.) 1960. Parmand. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 93. A collection of selected Kashmiri poems of Parmanand, translated into Urdu by the editor. Toshkhani, S.K. and Moti Lal Saqi (eds.) 1974. Parmanand vol. II. Srinagar: JKAACL, pp. 304. A collection of selected Kashmiri poetry of Parmanad – a noted Kashmiri poet, with an introduction. – a noted Kashmiri poet, with an introduction. Wani, Mahbooba 1979. Urdu aur Kashmiri shairi: me• roma:niyat (Romanticism in Urdu and Kashmiri poetry). Ph. D. Dissertions, University of Kashmir (unpublished). Kashmiri Language, Linguistics and Culture An Annotated Bibliography by Omkar N Koul © The Author First published 2000 An Annotated Bibliography by Omkar N Koul © The Author First published 2000 Published by Central Institute of Indian Langugaes Manasagangotri Mysore 570006 ______________________________________________________________
8.1 THE ORAL TRADITION
The oral tradition of Kashmiri language is highly colourful and complex in nature. It consists of various folk forms and its folk literature is the most representative form. It was from Kashmir that Somdeva collected various forms of stories with varied motifs for his universally acknowledged Kathasarit Sagar of 11th century AD. Kashmiri language has not only preserved its folk tradition but also has enriched and modified it in every age. It represents many aspects of social change, behaviour patterns, hopes, repressed wishes, creative thoughts, unconscious yearnings and collective dreams. The folk literature analyses the social drama in the geographical frame and with reference to the historical compulsions. For its beauty, diversity and complexity of interpretation, Kashmiri folk literature has received the attention of various scholars of different fields of learning. Hinton Knowels, compiler of the first anthology of Kashmiri folk tales, writes, “Kashmir as a field of folk literature is perhaps not surpassed in fertility by any other country in the world”.
The folk literature in Kashmiri mainly exists in four forms
1. Folk Story (Kath, Daleel) 2. Folk Song (Baath, Manzil bath, Ladishah, Rov, Wanvun, Nende bath, Khaandar beeth) 3. Folk Drama 4. Proverbs and Sayings
The urgency to preserve the folk tradition was felt long back by some European scholars. They contacted various storytellers and a good number of folk tales, proverbs and sayings were collected. The pioneers in this context are J.H Knowels, Aurel Stien and G.A.Grierson. In 1887 Knowels compiled Folk Tales of Kashmir, a dictionary of Kashmiri Proverbs and Sayings. Aurel Stien heard many tales from an oil seller named Hatim and these tales were later edited by Grierson and entitled Hatims Tales. Nand Lal Chatta and C.L.Hakhoo brought out folk tales collections in Hindi entitled Kashmir Ki Lok Kathayein. S.N Dhar’s Tales of Kashmir is also helpful to the students of folk tales. However the most painstaking efforts for preserving the oral tradition were made by the Cultural Academy of Jammu and Kashmir by publishing many volumes of folk songs as well as folk stories. Mohd. Sultan Bhagat brought out his Kaashur LukI Theatre. Moti Lal Kemu tried to preserve the folk drama and made efforts to make it relevant to modern times. He not only wrote in folk form but also added new dimensions to the stage play by using folk elements as symbols.
Kashmiri folk literature is a treasure of unwritten history. It depicts life in various colours and moods. It shows the importance of many social institutions like joint family. It depicts women, specially common and elite and brings out contrasts in their behavior. There are reflections on local customs like Khaana Daamaadi and adoption .One not only comes to know about the social life of the community through Ladeeshah and various Baanda Paathairs but also feel the revolting spirit of the common people who use folk forms to express their displeasure and disapproval of political and economic exploitation.
Kashmiri folk theatre comprises of many Paathairs. The main ones are Darza paathair, Bata paathair, Raaza paathair, Buhari paathair, Haanz paathair, Bakarwaal paathair, Gosaain paathair, Waatal paathair and Mughal paathair. The paathairs are not originally written rather, they have striking resemblances. In some cases they differ only in name. For instance, Bata paathair and Buhari paathar are same in presentation and texture. Being unwritten, the paathairs constantly change in text according to the changes in social setup, contemporary taste and political scenario.
The main characters of paathairs are Maagun and Maskhar. Maagun is in a way the director and producer of the paathair. He is also head of the Baandes in their day today lives. He is like the Sutradhaar of Sanskrit drama. He performs various roles. Maskhar is the chief character in a paathair. His role is of interest for the audience and of much significance for Maagun. Goopali is an important female character in some paathairs like Gosain Paathar.
The study of Kashmiri proverbs and sayings shows social conflicts, psychological contradictions, economic compulsions as well as linguistic beauties. These sayings show how some aspects of the cultural destiny of the people have been shaped.
Kashmiri folk songs are especially rich in depicting emotions, dreams, miseries and desires of the Kashmiri woman. In these woman is represented in complexity of her relationships. She has to observe and honour all the values of feudal society and has to be selfless and emotionless like a stone. From dawn to dusk, she is supposed to attend the domestic work. One can find ample evidence of polygamy, early marriage, Pardah system among the upperclass Muslims, and curses of widowhood everywhere.
Generally the parental home of a woman is a source of joy for her, while the home of her inlaws is the cause for constant nightmare. A woman should be under the control of Hash (mother-in-law) and Zaam (husband’s sister). She has no right to complain. Speaking to her husband in daylight is considered indecent. Hence many instances of moral laxity can be found. The other reasons for this laxity were early widowhood, poverty, strained relations between husband and wife, feudal sensuality and licentious attitudes. All these factors combined, gave rise to professional prostitution among common and aristocrats.
8.2 EARLY PERIOD (900 TO 1554 AD)
Most of the Manuscripts written in Kashmiri before the fourteenth century have not been found so far as they may have been lost due to recurrent foreign invasions and natural calamities. There is no evidence to show when Kashmiri got over its dialectic stage. At the same time it may be mentioned that the scholars of Kashmir did consider Kashmiri language suitable for serious themes like philosophy and literature. When Shiti Kantha wrote his Mahanaya Prakasha in Kashmiri he translated every Vaakh in Sanskrit to communicate himself fully. One can find some phrases of Kashmiri in Kahalan’s Rajatarangani. In his Desh Opdesh, Kshendera (11th century) suggests that poets should write in their own language. Some people, without much evidence believe that in about 150 B.C Nag San, a Kashmiri Buddhist Scholar wrote his Milind Panha in Kashmiri and BrihatKatha of Gunadhya was also written in Paishachi of Kashmir (Dardic group).
The earliest use of Kashmiri Language was found in Chhuma Padas. This oldest specimen of Kashmiri literature was used to express and explain various Shaivit doctrines especially the Pratibhajna philosophy. These Pads are in Apabharmasha form of Kashmiri and they are as difficult to understand as those of Shiti Kantha’s Mahanay Prakash. Mahanay Prakash, the first book of Kashmiri poetry is written in Sanskrit style. The author claims that he has written the book in Sarvagochara Desha Basha (language of the common people) but the nature of the subject, Sanskrit expressions and the Sanskrit translation of the Vaakhs show amply that Shiti Kantha doubts his communicative ability in Kashmiri language. Mahanaya Prakasha has only linguistic and esoteric importance. The Vaakhs of Shiti Kanth are also very important for the study of the Vaakhs of Lal Ded. Shiti Kanth provides form and subject to Lal Ded which Lal used with different poetic and spiritual experience and recreated Vaakh in Kashmiri and got it to pinnacle of glory.
Vaakh and Shrukh
Vaakh and Shrukh are Kashmiri words for Vaakya and Shloka of Sanskrit. There is not much difference in the structural forms of the two differently named genres. Both are fourlined. However, there is difference in their subjects. Vaakh is associated with Lal Ded so much so that her Vaakhs are the only authentic source for understanding her creative personality. Shrukh form is mainly associated with Nund Ryosh popularly known as Sheikh-ul-Aalam and Alamdari Kashmir (i.e. universal teacher and the Banner Holder of Kashmir). Lal Ded was born in early 14th century at Sempora near Paandrethan and was married at Padampora (modern Pampur). After her marriage she was named Padmavati according to custom but she is known as Lal which was probably her parental name and which is short form of Lalita (The Goddess of Fortune). She was most probably initiated into Yoga at an early age by Siddha Shree Kantha, popularly known as Sedhamol. She did not have a pleasant family life. Early spiritual practices coupled with her sublimation, added great intensity to her spiritual experience. She was born with a poetic soul and had a natural linguistic flair. Hence her experience found expression in such creative language that her Vaakhs have everlasting freshness and inspiration. She presents linguistic transition in 14th Century. Her Vaakhs represent the dawn of the modern Kashmiri language. Her poetry not only provides numerous idioms and phrases but also philosophical thoughts to the Kashmiri language, which adds beauty of expression to it. She is the maker of modern Kashmiri. Due to her inborn communicative skills, her Vaakhs are considered a great literary treasure both for the common reader and the critics. She recreated Vaakh in such a manner that it became the standard of criteria for judging this genre for all types. Assonance, inner rhymes, depth of meaning, images, non-didactic nature and inner poetic conflict or auto-drama are some of the characteristics of her Vaakhs
e.g. aami pana sodras naavi chas lamaan aati bozi dai myon meti diyi taar aamyan Taakyan pony chhum shaman zuv chhum bramaan gara gatsahaa 'With raw thread, I tow my boat upon the sea May my God lead me across! My half baked plates are soaking; I yearn for my Source'
Lal was a Shaivite of Trika branch. Her spiritual experiences come from her active Sadhana and bear no impact other than Trika. On the basis of her Vaakhs it can safely be said that she was neither mad and naked nor undisciplined. She was against religious rituals and dogmas, as she became elevated in Sadhana in the later part of her life. The control of Chitt (Consciousness) and its absorbtion in Shunya – a positive void, is the pinnacle of her experience.
Nunda Ryosh (Sheikh-ul-Aalam) is the founder of Rishi order (a form of Reshi Sufism) of Kashmir. He was greatly influenced by Lal Ded and considered her a great apostle of light .Lal and Sheikh shared the same spiritual moorings and both are the makers of the composite culture of Kashmir. Lal bears a spirit of revolt and reformation and the same is true of the great Sheikh, who lashed out upon that mullah mentality which wanted to exploit the masses and was trying to tarnish the fair face of Kashmir. Sheikh gave his message of love, simplicity, tolerance and non-violence.
The form of poetry used by Nunda Ryosh is known as Shrukh, which is a four-line composition like vaakh. The vaakhs of Lal Ded and shrukhs of Sheikh are intermingled. Many efforts have been made to identify them separately. Even the vaakhs of Lal Ded have been interpolated.
Sheikh was a great organizer. He visited the whole length and breadth of the valley to deliver his message and strengthen the Rishi order. The order believed in public works, service of people as well as meditation for long periods away from mundane world as practiced by the Sheikh himself. Sheikh was a vegetarian and survived on fallen leaves of Difsacus and Chicory. Amongst his disciples Nasr-ud-din, Baam-ud-din, Zain-ud-din, Payaam-ud-din and Shyaama Bibi are well known.
Shrukh unlike vaakh is didactic in content and exhortative in nature .It is a vehicle of Sheikh’s teachings. Instead of abstract images, Nunda Ryosh used the names daily use articles and visual images to express his ideas. Sheikh believed in moral preachings’ for the upliftment of man and harmonious social living and used shrukh to convey his ideas.
Nunda Ryosh died in 1438 AD and was buried at Tsrar-I-Shareef , which has become a place of pilgrimage since then. Sheikh enjoyed reverence of masses and he is the only poet- sage in whose name a coin was issued by the Afghan governor Aatta Mohammad Khan in 1809, almost 370 years after his death. The prophetic insight of the poet seer is evident from his Shrukhs. Only a saying is quoted here
Ann Poshi Teli Yeli Wan Poshi 'The growth of food is subservient to the growth of forest'.
Shahi Khan popularly known as Budshah became king during this period and ruled effectively from 1420-1470 AD. He is also known as Zain-ul-abdin. He is considered one of the greatest kings of Kashmir and a genius who appreciated the cultural tradition and left no stone unturned to preserve it. He was the lover of cultural heights and respected scholars, poets and artists. Almost all fine arts got new life due to his patronage. He was himself a poet and wrote in Persian and Kashmiri languages. It is believed that many books in Kashmiri were written during his reign. These include Zaina Tsareth by Som Pandit, Zaina Prakash by Yodha Bhat, Baanasur vadhKatha by Avatar Bhat. Only Avatar’s Baanaasur vadh katha has survived the ravages of time. It is a long narrative poem about the love affair of Usha and Aniruddh. It is the first epic poem in Kashmiri, but its language is highly Sanskritized. Some scholars prefer to term it as a form of Kashmiri Apabhramsha.
After the death of Badshah in 1470, no Kashmiri work was created, except for Gana Prashast’s Swokh Dwokh Tsareth written in the Baanasura katha style. Folk literatures, however, must have flourished in abundance during this intervening period. Of the folk tales that survived, the AkaNandun and Heemal Naagiraay entertained the people during the calamities of famines and floods, and it is performing the same function even now.
Rupa Bhaawani (1625-1721) the saint poetess was well versed in Vedantic philosophy . She knew Sanskrit and Persian well. She composed vaakhs, which do not have as much of linguistic beauty as the vaakhs of Lal. These seem to be distant from common speech. She wrote her vaakhs in a scholarly fashion, depicting spiritual journey of a seeker. After Bhawani, the vaakh form was continued by Kashmiri pandit saints for their personal communications. Mirza Kaak, Lachi Kaak and Rits Ded expressed their experiences in vaakh form. Rits Ded (1880-1966), though illiterate, was conscious of the whole vaakh tradition and contributed to it by her rich expression and experience. She herself claims the impact of Lal Ded, Nunda Ryosh, Rupa Bhaawani and Mirza Kaak.
No poetic form ever dies and it is as true about vaakh. In 1998 Bimla Raina published her vaakh collection Resh Maalyun Myon. Her Vaakhs are of high literary merit. It seems, she has not only rediscovered vaakh tradition but also has recreated it. Her second collection of vaakhs Veth Ma chhe Shongith (2002) further adds to her mastering of Vaakh. Bimla Raina also tries to rediscover idiom of Lal Ded.
8.3 The Medieval Period (1554-1819 A.D)
After the establishment of the Muslim rule in the 14th century, many cultural changes took place. However, linguistic changes were most prominent. Persian was rapidly establishing itself in place of Sanskrit. At the instance of Bud Shah the Kashmiri Pandits adopted Persian and the bulk of them became Karkuns – i.e. service class. Kashmiri language developed very rapidly during this period and the important genres of Kashmiri poetry Vatsun and Masnavi came into being and developed to a greater extent. Hence this period can also be called as the Vatsan and Masnavi period.
Genres like Vatsun- a literary form, were used in many Indian languages especially in Kannada for expressing spiritual thoughts. Vatsun genre may have existed in Kashmir even before Lal Ded. However, the first Vatsun writer of repute is Habba Khaatoon. There is no authentic reference about her life. One has to depend upon the folk tradition, legend and her own poetry to determine the course of her life. Folk tradition and legends provide only contradictory accounts. Habba Khaatoon is one of the makers of Vatsun form in Kashmiri and is surely the first significant romantic poetess. Her Vatsuns are brimming with her personal emotions, agony and love. The depths of her feelings give inner rhymes to her Vatsun. She decorated her style with imagery and medial rhyme. Her emotions are reflective of the emotions of the woman in general. She was well educated in music and enriched Kashmiri music by composing Rast Kashmiri, a new raag in Kashmiri music.
Khawaja Habib Ullah Nowsheri (1555-1617), Mirza Akmal-ud-din Badakshi (1642- 1717) are the other two poets of this genre.
Sahib Kaul (1629 ?) is the most important poet of the Mughal Age of Kashmir. His Sanskrit works are well known. He wrote three books in Kashmiri viz. Kalpa Vriksh, Janma Charit and Krishnavataara Charit. His language contains many Persian, Arabic and Sanskrit words. He was a Shaivite and had a remarkable craftsmanship. Krishnavataara is praise worthy for its musical style and the development of Vatsun.
Arnimaal is another remarkable poetess of the Vatsun genre. She was born at Palhalan and married to Bhawani Das Kachru of Srinagar who was a high official in Pathan court. Due to the charms of the court beauties he forgot his poet-wife. This separation is the subject matter of the Vatsan poetry of Arnimaal. Her love lyrics are sensuous, full of agony, reflective of her heritage and flair of language. An example of the kind is given below:
Arni rang gom shraavuni hiya Kar yiye darshun ma diye 'My midsummer Jasmine bloom faded away I yearn to see him'
She was so popular a poet that her contemporary Mahmood Gami, one of the epoch makers in Kashmiri poetry, was fascinated by the flair of song quoted above. He adopted this couplet for his own Vatsun and made his own additions to it. The Vatsuns of Arnimaal have much to tell about the poetess.
Sochaa Kraal (1774-1855) is a significant mystic poet who believed in the doctrine of Wahadat-ul-Wajood, which means that God and man are not separate qualitatively and in essence. Sochaa Kraal expressed his thoughts in a simple but effective style – Naav dar aab ta Aab dar Naav (The boat is in the water and the water is in the boat)
Shah Gafoor had vast knowledge of Sufi tenets as well as the Shastras. He presented an amalgam of both for communicating his experience –
Yot Yith Zanmas Kenh Chuna Larun Darnaayi Daarun Soo Hum Soo 'Taking birth in this world, one gets nothing So meditate upon He is me'
Mohmood Gami (1765 – 1855) is the most attention deserving poet of his times not only for the development of Vatsun but also for the genre of Masnavi. The whole creative beauty of Vatsun is reflected in his lyrics. He was inspired by the folklore and the poets like Arnimaal. He had capacity to understand the tradition and recreate it. He influenced not only his contemporaries but also the poets of the coming generations. His own cotemporary Wali Ullah Matoo called him the master poet. His Vatsuns have a wide variety of themes and they present a synthesis of mundane and spiritual elements.
Mohmood was well versed in Persian and Arabic and had deeply studied Persian poets especially Jami and Nizami who are the masters of Persian Masnavi. Mohmood introduced not only Masnavi with its variety of colours but also Naat to Kashmiri poetry. At the time of his death at the age of 90 he had made Kashmiri language richer by his Vatsun and Masnavis. He introduced Persian aesthetics to a great extent to the Kashmiri poetry. He is remembered for his nice diction, craftsmanship and melody that appeals even to modern taste.
Kar saa myon nyaay ande Maarymande madanvaaro 'When I will get justice Oh! My darling beloved' Katyoo chhukh nunda bane Volo maashooka myaane 'Where are you my fascinating one Come my darling'
Mohmood is basically a lyricist. His lyrics represent Kashmiri culture, social life, yearnings and repressions.
Most of Masnavi writers are also Vatsun writers. Even Naats, Manqabats and Leelas have been written in Vatsun form. Bhakti poets Parmanand and Krishna Razdaan who wrote Leelas also wrote Masnavis in Vatsan technique. The great mystic poets from Rahim Saab Sopori (1775) to Bhaagiwaan Ded ( d 1950?) have used Vatsun form to express themselves. As such Vatsun is the best part of Kashmiri poetry as it has preserved the essence of vocal Kashmiri music. Even the non-Sufi lyricist poet, Rasool Mir could not but use this classical form of Kashmiri literature. Rahim Saab, Rahmaan Daar, Shamas Faqir (1849 to 1904), Niama Saab, Asad Pare(1862-1920) are some of the mystic poets who added to the linguistic beauty of Vatsun. Rahmaan Daar’s Vatsuns are musical with freshness of experience and idiom. Daar’s Shesh Rang, in its unique form of eight lined stanza, is a six stanza song. It is an allegory. Niama Saab & Shamas Faqir communicate deep thoughts in simple language. They have mastery over expression and experimentation in the use of language. Asad Pare’s expressions convey his deep experiences mainly in allegorical style.
In the early 20th century, mystic tradition and Vatsun genre continued with more vigour. Wahab Khaar (1912 d),Ramzaan Bhat(1887-1918),Ahmad Batawaari(1845-1918),Samad Mir(1892- 1959),Abdual Ahad Zargar(1904-1983),Bhaagiwaan Ded etc. developed Vatsun genre and took it to its glory. Samad Mir an illiterate sawyer and a great mystic poet with intensity of spiritual experience, used new metaphors. Zargar was another seeker of the ultimate reality. According to T. N. Raina “Zargar used imagery that would shock normal sensibility into an unusual awareness”. Bhaagiwaan Ded is the last poet of repute in the mystic rosary of Vatsun. Her collection Mani Pamposh published in 1998 shows how she has masterly used language and form. She was influenced by her senior contemporaries, Samad Mir and Ahad Zargar. Among all the mystic poets of Kashmir her work is most voluminous. Due to her communicative skills, innovative imagery and command over language, she has carved out a place for herself in the annals of Kashmiri mystic poetry. Almost all the mystic poets were influenced by the philosophy of the Hindu mysticism. They believed in universal love and are the torchbearers of the composite culture of Kashmir.
Due to the wide influences of Persian language a new poetic form viz. Masnavi came into being. Masnavi is a long narrative poem and it has mainly four kinds.
1. Bazmia (Romantic) 2. Razmia(Depicting Bravery and Battle) 3. Mazhabi(Religious) 4. Hazlia(Satiric)
No doubt, a number of local legends like Heemaal Naagi Raay, Aka nandun and the Hindu epics are a part of Masnavi Contents, but most of the Kashmiri Masnavis are translations or adaptations of Persian Masnavis with unchanged characteristics. Mohmood Gaami wrote the Masnavis like Sheereen Khusro, Laila Majnun, Yusuf Zuleikha, Sheikh Mansoor, Sheikh Sanaan and Pahalynaama. His most famous Masnavi, with its linguistic smoothness and beautiful meter changes is Yusuf Zuleikha. It became a model for others who followed him. Gaami however due to the overwhelming Persian impact could not change Persian Masnavis as much as to suit the temper of Kashmiri language perfectly.
Maqbool Amritsari wrote three Masnavis, some Vatsuns and ghazals. Only Yusuf Zuleikha is available in manuscript form. He lived for a greater period of his life in Amritsar and much is not known about him.
Wali Ullah Matoo (d 1858), was a contemporary of Gaami. He wrote Masnavi Heemaal Naagi Raay – a local love legend which depicts hostility between the Naagas and Pisaachas. The poet uses simple language, maintains local temper but does not absorb himself into his subject well and that is the reason why his Masnavi seems soulless.
Maqbool Shah Kraalawaari (1820-1877) wrote Gulrez – considered to be the best Kashmiri love Masnavi. He also wrote some satirical Masnavis, Grees Naama and Peer Naama. Gulrez is an adaptation of a Persian Masnavi of Zia-ud- din. It is based on a roman tie tale of love between Ajab Malik and Nosh Lab. The poet has taken certain liberties with the original to make it suitable to the local people. Local colour in atmosphere and traits of characters, beauty of plot and the vivid expression of emotions are some of the qualities of this Masnavi. The poetic flow and beauty of narration make Gulrez the most important Masnavi of Kashmiri literature. To the poet goes the credit of writing the first satirical Masnavi Grees Naama in Kashmiri language.
Prakash Ram Kurgami (d1885) is the author of Ramavtaar Charit , Lava Kusha Charit , Krishnavataar , Akanandun and Shiv Lagan.His most famous Masnavai is Ramavtaar Charit which is the first Razmi Masnavi in Kashmiri . Its language is sweet and is neither burdened with Sanskrit nor Persian vocabulary. It presents the beauty of Kashmir and creates Kashmiri settings in Lanka. Its songs are melodious and soothing. They are good enough for religious sentiment. He depies the beauty of nature, excellently.
Aav bahaar bol bulbulo Son vwolo barayo shaadee 'Oh! Nightingale, sing it is spring Come to us for entertaining'
Vishnu Razdan of Kulgam, a saintly man has translated Valmiki Ramayana into Kashmiri. Almost all the poets of the 19th century and early 20th century including Abdul Ahad Azad (Chandar Badan) wrote Masnavis. Narrative poetry provided rich entertainment to listeners of that time. Masnavi satisfied the yearnings of people who possessed nothing but frustrating dreams. A fairy or princess depicted sensually showed them such daydreams. Some times they found mystic dimensions in Masnavi and got their hallow spiritual needs satisfied. The long periods of subjugation had taken away the whole zest of activity from their lives. Hence epic heroes like Saam became great source of catharsis. Religious romance and the hallow sensuousness are sources of satisfaction for the people who are bereft of good things in life.
Eighty percent of Masnavis are unpublished as yet. Among the published ones the following three Razmia Masnavis are very significant.
1. Saam Naama of Lakshman Joo Raina Bulbul (1812-1898) 2. Shah Naama of Wahab Pare (1846-1914) 3. Saam Naama of Amir Shah Kriri (1846-1905)
The Shah Naama of Wahab Pare is purported to be a very free translation of the Shah Naama of Firdosi and it seems that Wahab has not paid full attention, nor has he been very serious to the translation. Wahab’s Shah Naama is a huge work of 23491 verses and it has not been possible for him to keep its cohesiveness. Amir Shah Kriri could not make his Saam Naama an organic whole due to the lack of craftsmanship. There are so many digressions in it and too much use of Persian vocabulary does not suit the poem. Bulbul’s Saam Naama has artistic niceties. The smoothness of plot and the flow of language make it a masterpiece. As against Wahab and Amir Shah, Bulbul’s warp and woof is local and hence responsible for effective narration. Against looseness of Wahab and Amir Shah, Bulbul has woven the whole story around the center figure Saam that gives compactness and freshness to the whole epic. Bulbul uses a sweet language, local imagery and common man’s idiom.
Naat is a sort of ode in which adorations to the Holy Prophet of Islam are sung. It has no definite form. Hamud and Manqabat are respectively the praises of God and great seers. Sometimes Hamud Manqabat and Naat are interconnected .
Naat starts with Nunda Ryosh where it is a part of Hamud. After about 150 years Habib-ullah-Nowshari wrote Naat. A little later Fakhir wrote beautiful Naats in Kashmiri in a very simple language. Walli- ullah – Matoo also wrote Naats fulfilling all the literal demands of this genre. Maqbool Shah Kraalawaari introduced Naat in Vanvun form and filled the genre with genuine emotions. Abdul Ahad Nazim and Pir Aziz-ullah Haqani are very important poets in the history of the development of Naat. Nazim’s language, emotions and etiquette are quite suitable for Naat writing.
chus dour pyomut ghatshit rodum yar Madinus tami noori roshan gaay dar-o-divar Madinus. 'I am away from my friend who has gone to Madina His beauty has enlightened the whole Madina'
However the master poet of this genre is Abdual Ahad Nadim (1258-1329 H). He took Naat to its perfection. His simple language devotion, reverence and allusions are the qualities of his Naat. His Naats are in Vatsun form. It has given effectiveness to his poetry.
Naat writing continues till date and modern poets like Mir Ghulam Rasool Nazki, Fazil Kashmiri, Dina Nath Nadim, Pitamber Nath Dhar Fani, Rahaman Rahi and many others have written beautiful thought provoking Naats.
After 1990, most of the poets in Kashmir valley wrote Naats. Some critics believe that the upsurge owns its origin to the political situation over there.
According to Aurbindo, world is not Maya but Leela of God. In this sense Leela as a genre of literature means ‘to play’. As such, Leela is that poetic expression which contains various colours and aspects of creation and thereby reflects the play of the Creator. It doesnot have any definite form. However, as Leela is a song set on instrumental music the Vatsun form is most suitable for it and bulk of this type of poetry has been written and is being written in the Vatsun form.
The early traces of Leela are found in Nund Ryosh. There may have been some other Leela poets, but it is Prakash Ram who popularized this genre. In his Ramavtaar Charit he has inserted a plethora of Leelas and these Leelas were more popular among the masses than the epic itself. He set the pattern of Leela which was followed by Vishnu Razdan whose Leelas have been collected in Leela Sagar recently. Some of his Leelas like Padi Kamalan Tal bi aasaay are evergreen. Leela is basically a devotional song which got attention of many poets. These include Nila Kanth, Vasudev, Anand Ram and Bhaskar Ji. The Leela’s of Nila Kanth are adorations of Lord Krishna and are very popular .However the greatest poets of Leela in 19th century are Parmanand (1791-1885) and Krishna Razdan (1850-1925).Parmanand lived at Mattan which is not only a sacred place but also an important transit camp during Amarnath pilgrimage. The place was resplendent with spiritual light. So the atmosphere was suitable for Parmanand. He had a vast study, which is reflected, in his poetic works along with his spiritual experiences. Among his writings Radha Swayamvara is most interesting and musical. His Leelas have been rightly called lyrical narratives and are in Vatsun form. His devotional songs are artistic expressions of his inward experiences in most suitable idiom. Parmanand has depths of meaning and passionate intensity. The allegorical character of his poems is remarkable.
Gokal hridai myon tati chon goory vaan Tset vyamarsha deptimaana Bhagvaano. Vrats myaani goopiyi tsey pata laaraan Bansari naad vaad mataano 'Gokul is my heart where you tend your cows. O Lord, radiant with the light of pure consciousness My senses are the gopis whom the magic of your Flute wafts to a higher plane' (Translation T.N Raina: A History of Kashmiri Literature)
Sometimes Leela’s of Parmanand are didactic yet their excellent allegorical character, matured wisdom and imagery makes such Leelas very communicative. His Karma Bhomika is an example of such Leelas. It is said that his disciple Lakshman Bulbul wrote some of the Leelas for Parmanand.
Krishna Raazdaan had a firm faith in Shaivism. His Shiv Puran and Shiv Lagan show his mastery over poetic art. His observation was minute and it provided raw material for his poetry .His usage of ordinary expressions conveys more than what the words mean. The inner music of his mystic experience is well conveyed by his words. He generally used Vatsun form and sometimes he experimented with other forms with equal success. No poet could surpass him in style, depth and diction.
Govind Kaul, a saint of Radha Swami order was also a Leela poet. But the most important Leela poet of the mid 20th century is Jiya Lal Saraf. His Leelas are in Vatsun form and were published in two parts entitled Bhajan Maalaa. He has the credit of translating Panchastavi, Gauri Stutti , Bhaja Govindam , Mahimna Sotraa in verse in Kashmiri. All his Kashmiri translations are sweet and linguistically flawless with their original music well preserved. These translations are being sung like Leelas. Saraf made Leela very popular. Prem Nath Arpan’s verse translation of Bhagwatgita has been very popular like popular Leelas sung all over the valley. Pushkar Nath kaul author of Poshe Daale is another living Leela poet whose Bhajans are very popular.
After the exodus of 1990, many new Leela composers like A. N. Dhar, N. N. Suman, K.N. Bhagwan, P.N. Shad, J. L. Juroo and N.K. Yarbash have emerged.
Marsia is an elegy, a mourning song for someone the poet loves. Marsia describes the qualities of the deceased. A Poet can write Marsia on any body, but it is generally associated with the martyrs and events of Karbalaa. Hence, Marsia is a form of poetry in which the character of the people, especially of those who were with Imam Hussein during his martyrdom, is sung. Hussain is the epic hero in the Marsia genre.
The classical Marsia of Kashmiri is different in technique form the modern Marsia which bears the influence of Urdu Marsia .The classical Marsia consists of five parts viz, Barkhast, Dunbaale,Gath , Krakh and Nishast. The Marsias sung during the mourning meetings in the month of Muharram are of this nature. Some important Marsia writers of the classical Marrsia were Hussain Mir, Hakkem Azim, Mohd. Baqir ,Mirza Abhu Qasim and Munshi Ahmed Ali .
The Marsia-writing in Kashmiri started in early period. Shyam Bibi wrote the first marsia in Vatsun form. It was written on the death of Nunda Ryosh. Then comes the name of Mahmood Gaami who wrote an elegy on the death of his son. Nazim also wrote Marsias. Wahab Khaar also wrote a Marsia expressing his shock over the death of his son. Maqbool Kraalawaari wrote Marsia and his Marsias contributed a lot in the technical growth of the genre .He wrote in Mussadas form i.e. six lined stanzas. Pir Haqani translated some Persian Marsias into Kashmiri. Ghulam Mohmaod Hanfi wrote many Marsias of merit. Marsias have been written in abundance by some modern poets belonging to Hindu as well as Muslim communities.
Marsia writing has enriched Kashmiri language with new words, phrases, allusions, expressions, thoughts, forms and styles .The greater portion of Marsia literature is unpublished as yet.
8.4 Modern Period (1819 onwards)
The Ghazal and the Nazam are two genres of Kashmiri poetry that developed in the modern period. Ghazal had taken its birth much earlier.
The word Ghazal means ‘talking romantically’. Romantic approach of the poet determines the temperament of his Ghazal. However, the genre has not remained limited to romantic experiences and expressions. It has been a vehicle of expression for all sort of thoughts – mystical, philosophical, psychological and has become gradually richer with varying dictions and styles. A Ghazal couplet has the rhyme scheme ab ab – ab. Every couplet is complete in meaning. The bravity of words that can enfold the various dimensions of experience is the main beauty of the Ghazal.
Ghazal was adopted in Kashmiri due to the increasing Persian influence. In the early period some poets like Fakhir experimented with this genre, but Vatsun remained a dominating force. Mahmood Gaami was the first poet who used Ghazal form with liberal Persian words. Maqbool Amritsari wrote Ghazals but it was Rasul Mir who under the influence of Gaami gave Ghazal the rear lift. His Ghazal is the product of imagination, feeling and musicality. Rasul Mir was the greatest among Ghazal writers till his times .He was greatly interested in Ghazal but did not have any pretensions of mysticism or narration. He limited himself to the expression of his experiences of human love. He even discarded the platonic notions and only sang of human love. He is sensuous and passionate in his expressions. He has his own stature as a romantic poet and he moulded the Ghazal form to suit his intensity of experience.
Maqbool Kraalawaari also wrote Ghazals. But it was Wahab Pare of Hajin who developed Ghazal by writing 781 Ghazals which exist in his Deewan .In most of his couplets he just seems to be a rhymester but many couplets contain poetic experiences and beauty of expression. Samad Mir and Ahad Zargar have contributed to Ghazal in a manner as to suit their mystical experiences. However the pioneers of Ghazal in the first half of 20th century were Ghulam Ahmad Mahjoor (1885- 1952) and Abdual Ahad Azad (1909- 1948).
Mahjoor was a lover of beauty and the adoration of beauty in any form is the chief quality of his Ghazals. He made his songs reflective of his feelings in a conventional style. He had capacity to understand the pulse of the time. He inspired the Kashmiri people for political & social change. He wanted to protect the tradition of love and tolerance.
He loved various colours of life and depicted the hues of nature in his Ghazals. This attracted the attention of Tagore and he called Mahjoor ‘the Wordsworth of Kashmiri poetry’.
Mahjoor is a link between old and new poetry .He enlarged the canvas of Ghazal, decorated it with new and fresh imagery, widely referred to local flora and fauna and made his Ghazal the chief vehicle of his thought.
Abdul Ahad Azad’s creed was humanism, scientific temperament and revolution. He was moved by the subjugation, suffering and poverty of the people of Kashmir. His advocacy of the universal brotherhood was not liked by some sections of the conservative society but he continued with his ideology. Like Majhoor he gave a new direction to Kashmiri poetry with his simple diction. His Ghazals are better known for his radical humanism in a language that was perfectly understood by the people.
Mirza Arif, Ghulam Rasool Nazki, Fazil Kashmiri are some other poets who developed Kashmiri Ghazal. However, it is after 1947 that Kashmiri Ghazal achieved its literal and creative heights through the works of Nadim, Rahi, Kamil, Firaq and others.
Dina Nath Nadim is a very significant poet. He contributed to Ghazal also. He was associated with the cultural renaissance of Kashmir and was a progressive poet. His Ghazals have the beauty of language and unique of tradition. His images are mostly taken from rustic life and are captivating.
Abdul Rahmaan Rahi was associated with Nadim and in his early poetry he bears Nadim’s influence. His poetry collection Nowrozi Saba contains conventional and musical Ghazals. After 1960, Rahi’s poetry does not evince an objective approach to life and subjectivity becomes main tool of his creative ability. He tries the quest of truth through his own experience. That may have made his creative effort, ambiguous at times. This whole phenomenon is reflected in his Ghazals which are included in his Siyah Rooda Jaryan Manz .
Mohammad Amin Kamil is one of the makers of modern Kashmiri Ghazal. He has infused realism in the genre and his Ghazals are a mirror of his sensibilities, human feelings and psychological depths. Kamil is a master of Ghazal writing. He understands the basic temperament and tenderness of the genre. His use of Kashmiri words and craftsmanship is very remarkable. In every couplet he has conveyed some experience. The observation and imagination with a touch of satire gives elegance to his Ghazal. He has his own style and he has the credit of bringing the Ghazal out of the clutches of feudal values.
Ghulam Nabi Firaq’s Ghazals have emotion, flow and depth. He bears the influence of the English lyric.
Moti Lal Saqi, Ghulam Rasool Santosh, Muzaffar Azim, Mishal Sultanpuri , Ghulam Nabi Khayal ,Margoob Banihaali, Chaman Lal Chaman , Moti Lal Naaz, Makhan Lal Kanwal , Rasool Pompur, Radhey Nath Masarrat ,Manzoor Hashmi, Arjun Dev Majboor , Nishat Ansari , Farooq Nazki are some important names in the history of the development of Ghazal.
Naseem Shifai’s Darichi Mutsrith makes the presence of the poetess felt in Ghazals with intensity of feeling and soft language.
Rafiq Raaz has given a new direction to Kashmiri Ghazal by the freshness of his style. Many younger poets are influenced by him. Suneeta Raina Pandit with her Rihij Yaad and Sonzal came up as a very prominent Ghazal writer.
Ghazal in Kashmiri language has developed rapidly during the last 50 years. It is rich both in content and language. Sometimes it has continued with conventional forms of expression and sometimes modified itself with new experiments in style. But in every case it has come out of its traditional mechanical frame and has taken many steps towards sophistication. There are new tools of communication, new perceptions and new metaphors. These have added to the aesthetics of the Kashmiri Ghazal.
Nazam is a form of poetry in which a single thought is expressed without any digressions. Nazam is an organic whole that indicates a single creative attitude of the poet. There is no restricted form for this genre. Many experiments have been made in its structure. Sometimes a poem is written without any rhythm and sometimes blank verse form is used for it. Inner rhyme is the most important element of the modern Nazam. The development of Kashmiri Nazam has the following stages :-
a. Till 1947: Some scholars believe that Nunda Ryosh wrote first Kashmiri Nazam Gongal Naama. After him Parmanand wrote some beautiful Nazams. No doubt, these are allegories but they cannot be termed as Nazam in modern context. Modern Nazam starts with Mahjoor and Azad. However, none of the two had complete notion of this genre. Basically the genre with its modern characteristics came from Europe. It came through Urdu into Kashmiri. After 1857, need for a new form was felt by the people connected with the Aligrah movement. A similar development took place from 1938 in Kashmiri due to the spread of education and political struggle. Mahjoor, Azad and Zinda Kaul (1884-1965) wrote some beautiful poems such as, Dariyaav, Shikwa-I-Iblees, Inqilaab of Azad and Yamberzal and Azadi of Mahjoor. Zinda Kaul popularly known as Master Ji wrote poems. His Sumaran(The Rosary) was the first book in Kashmiri which was awarded Sahitya Akademi Award in 1956. His poems are devotional and philosophical in content and are rich in structure and style.
b. 1948-1960: The Progressive Movement affected Kashmiri literature with the same intensity as Sir Syed Movement had given new directions to Urdu Nazam after 1857. Certain political, economic and social changes also helped in the growth of the Nazam. Well-educated youths of that period were influenced by Karl Marx .The social change and economic revolution became their creed. The young poets gave up all the previous models of adoration and adopted a new form of expression called Nazam to suit the changing times. Realism was their watchword and the working class was the center of their attention. Most of the modern poets of repute were the torchbearers of social change, which in spite of good humanitarian motives became sloganism in literature. Though the poets never bothered for literary refinement and originality yet it can be safely said that poems of this period are a milestone in the growth of the Nazam. It was the only period when common people took great interest in Mushairas and literary functions. They found a mirror of their lives in Nazam. Poets of this period were greatly influenced by Nadim. The new forms that were born as a result of the change are free verse, sonnet, blank verse, the opera and the Tukh(Quatrain). Ornamental language and other traditional conventions were discarded and every effort was made to meet the demands of change. Some good poems like Nadim’s Me chamm aash paguhch, Kamil’s Yaarabaluk Sahar were written in this period.
Nadim was a born poet and even the poems written with socialistic motivation by him bear certain degrees of literal beauty . Wothi baaguch kukilee (Arise the cuckoo of garden), Dal haanzni hond Vatsun(The song of the boat woman) are some of the instances.Nadim introduced new rhythms superbly. His original imagery and use of blank verse (as in Bu gyavana az) speak of the many creative capabilities of Nadim.
Rahi was a progressive poet in essence but at the same time his poems impress the reader by his craftsmanship. He introduced the monologue-technique in his Gata-ta-Gaash (Darkness and Light) Nowroze Saba shows his maturity and promise of creativity. Some of his important poems of this period are Zindagee(Life), Path agar yiyi the motas vaary (Then if death were to come) and Azich kath(Today’s tale).
Mirza Arif also played his role in the development of Nazam, with the same progressive notions. Dusa, Zanaanan hund ehtejaaaj(the protest of women) are some of his important Nazams. Kamils Mas malir (1955) contains many poems depicting progressive trends and growth of Nazam. He experimented with the form of Nazam and he himself claims that his style and craftsmanship are different. This difference is amply brought forward in his second collection Lava ta Prava(Dew Drops and Sunbeams).His other two poetic collections are Beyi sui paan and Padis Pud Tshaayi. His craftsmanship is commendable. Kamil successfully uses references from Hindu mythology in his poetry to communicate effectively. He has freshness of language and beauty of metaphor. The poet seems conscious of the changing values of the modern life.
Ghulam Nabi Firaq shows influence of the progressive Urdu poem and romantic English poetry. He has written some good poems and his subjects are conventional like agonies of life and love. Almost all those poets who have contributed to Ghazal have also contributed to the development of Nazam in their own way. However, most of the poets are not having any new experimentation in structure of the poem and some of them write in traditional style.
c. 1960 onwards: Nadim, Rahi, Kamil. Moti Lal Saqi, Muzafar Azim , Ghulam Nabi Khyaal , Arjun Dev Majboor, Vaasdev Reh, Mishal Sultanpuri, Margoob Banihaali, Moti Lal Naaz , Nishat Ansari, Naji Munavar, Santosh, Rasul Pompur and Farooq Nazki are some of the poets who contributed to the development of Nazam. These poets have explored new horizons. The same poets who had discarded the tradition under the influence of progressivism are trying to recreate at present. Poets like Rahi are finding new meanings in Lal Ded and other classic poets. Old idioms are being used to communicate the new meanings. Poet’s creativity has displayed their special use of images and symbols. Modernity was a trend upto 1980 but it could not become a movement like the Progressive movement. It had its influence upon the poets like Rahi. But the circumstances prevailing in Kashmir after 1990 have affected their creativity to a great extent and poetry has become much more topical.
Nadim was the first poet who affected structural changes. He took up abstract themes in his Nazam after 1960. His Naabad Tyathavyan is a milestone not only in the development of Kashmiri Nazam but also in the evolution of Nadim. This poem set a new trend of style, structure and thought in Nazam. Some important poems of Nadim in this context are Kaathi Darwaazaa Pathi Gara Tani, Lakhchi chuu Lakhchun. However his best contribution in this regard are his small poems which have a chain of metaphors, symbols and unlimited scope of meaning. Such poems of his are called Haarisath.
Rahi exhibited many elements of modernism through his poems. His poetry bears the influence of existentialism. The poet seems lost in his agony of loneliness and has no solace and feels bereft of all those things which man had taken for granted as his conventions and support. One of his poems Badbeen (The Cynical) expresses the tragedy of man who has nothing to depend upon. The poetic collection of Rahi viz. Sihya rooda jareen manz is a masterpiece work that shows the changing attitudes and creative evolution of the poet.
Moti Lal Saqi’s three poetry collections( Modury Khaab, Mansar,Neery nagma) show the changing trends of Nazam. His poem Mandore is a fine example of artistic use of symbol and his Vaaraag uses symbol of smoke to express his sensibilities. Majboor’s Tyol presents the trauma of the migration of a large section of Kashmiri pandits following militancy in Kashmir. Almost all such poets communicate the agonies of exodus and it has almost become a trend in literature. It is replete with emotion and is topical to a greater extent. Moti Lal Naaz’s Poshe Kuj presents some fine poems, which are the mirror of his feelings expressed in a suitable style. Rasool Pompur’s Safed Sangar and KhandI contain nice poems.
Some very recent trends can be found in the Nazam of Shafi Shouq, Ghulshan Majeed , M.H. Zafar and even in Rahmaan Rahi . Shouq and Ghulshan’s poems are better understood at an abstract level and they represent to some extent the postmodern trend in Kashmiri poetry. Naseem Shafai sees the bleeding society through the eyes of a woman with wounded sensibilities.
Growth of Prose
It is not known what type of prose existed till 19th century, as no prose work has been found. In 1821 the first effort was made by Serampore Missionaries who got New Testament translated into Kashmiri in Sharda script. The same was reprinted in 1884 in Persian script. In 1879 the first book in Kashmiri was printed and the subject matter of this book was geometry. This book was authored by Pandit Mahadev Gigoo who wrote under pseudonym of Ram Joo Dhar . The book was printed on hand made Kashmiri paper in Kashmir. In 1898 Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal published Ishwarakaul’s Shabda-amrita, a work on Kashmiri grammar in Sanskrit. Moulvi Yahaya’s Tafseer-I-Quraan and Kaashar Kitaab by Agha Sayyad Mohammad with heavy Persian diction were also published.
The Persian script of Kashmiri was not suitable for reading and writing, as it had no diacritical marks. It can be one of the main reasons for the lack of prose till 1947. Kashmiri prose writing did not develop till it got the attention of Mahjoor and Mirza Arif who persuaded writers to write in Kashmiri prose.
The greatest contribution of Progressive Movement in Kashmir is the development of Kashmiri prose. The Cultural Congress stressed on the development of fiction, drama and criticism. It was in the meetings of cultural congress that modern prose really evolved. Since July 1948, Radio Kashmir and since 1958, Jammu and Kashmir Cultural Academy have been doing their best to develop Kashmiri literature and language. The development of Kashmiri prose is actually the development of various prose genres like drama, short story, novel etc.
Kashmir has a rich tradition of folk drama which is entertaining the people over centuries. However, interest was shown by some people in stage and literal drama. Nand Lal Kaul, Tara Chand Bismil and Ghulam Nabi Dilsoz were the first to take steps in this direction. Kaul’s Satuch Kahwat was written in 1929 and staged in Raghu Nath Mandir, Srinagar for four years. Its language is heavily Sanskritsed, yet people took it very eagerly. Dilsoz wrote a play titled Lailaa Majnoon and Shirin Farhaad for a gramophone company. The recordings entertained the people. Bismil wrote Satuch Vath. A big step towards the drama writing was taken by Mohi-ud-din Hajni by his Grees Sund Gara, most probably under the literal influence of Gowdaan of Munshi Prem Chand. In 1944, various drama clubs came into being. The Sudhar Samiti Club wanted to affect social reformation of Kashmiri Pandits through the medium of drama. Due to the efforts of Balraj Sahni, Indian Peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) was established and this had its impact on the development of theatre in the State. The Cultural Front took theatre to rural Kashmir. Its purpose was not to develop drama but rather the theatre was used as a medium, to awaken people politically and socially. Due to the political considerations Bata Har play of Prem Nath Pardesi could not be staged. His second play Shaheed Sheerwaani whose songs were written by Mahjoor was not successful due to the lack of its stage ability. Some plays like Ali Mohammad Lone’s Viz chhi saany, Roshan’s Son Sansaar and Amin Kamil’s Pagaah Chhu Gaashdaar were staged. All the three dramas were published and titled as Kuni Kath in 1955. The impact of Progressive Movement was felt through the medium of drama. Nadim contributed, as usual in this field also .His plays include Zameen chhi Greesy Sonz (The land is the tillers), Nekee ta Badee(Good and Evil),Vaavan Vonnum and the famous opera Bombur ta Yemburzal. Nadim liberated Kashmiri drama from the shackles of other languages by using the diction of the common people with aesthetic effects. The opera was shown to Khrushchev and Bulganin in 1956 when they visited the state. Hemaal-ta-Naagiray was his next opera. Shihil Kul is a drama of bigger canvas and some of its parts were presented through light and sound medium in an open theatre. The Vitasta is an opera with fine musical language. It was a great stage success and the Times of India considered it “ a glorious feast of Colour, dance & drama”. It was staged in many cities of India. Vitasta is the first Kashmiri opera to win international fame.
The writers who followed Nadim include Amin Kamil (Raav Roopee), Muzaffar Azim (Sony Kisur), Ghulam Rasool Santosh(Gulrez), Pushkar Bhan(Dodi Majnoon), Jagar Nath Wali (Zoon) Noor Mohmood Roshan(Choor Bazar)Som Nath Zutshi(Potsh)Aziz Haroon (Soda),Akhtar Mohi-ud-din(Nasti hund Sawal).
Kashmir Theatre Federation formed in 1962 consisted of 17 drama clubs. It helped in the promotion of drama. In 1960, Tagore Hall was constructed and the State Cultural Academy has been organising drama festivals since then. Many new dramatists came to forefront. They include Moti Lal Kemmu, Avtaar Krishen Rahbar , Sjood Sailani , Bansi Nirdosh, Hari Krishen Kaul , Mohammad Subhan Bhagat.
Ali Mohammad Lone wrote Taqdeer Saaz. Kemmu has many plays to his credit. Some of them are Tshaay, Haram Khaanuk Aana and Manzil Nika. Natak Truch is collection of his three plays. Kemmu enriched drama by his stagecraft and creative production. Sajood Sailani wrote Zalur, Rwopaya Rood, Tanate Ku, Shihul Naar, Kajy Raath, Gaashi Taarukh. Other plays in Kashmiri include Hari Krishan Kaul’s Dastaar, Lone’s Chaary Paathir and Suya. Pushkar Bhan’s Rangan handy Rang, Farooq Masoodi’s College Paathir, Rattan Lal Shant’s Shahrag, Kemmu’s Lal bu draayas lolare, Dakh yeli Tsalan, Nagar Woodaasy,RadhaKrishen Braroo’s Reshy Vaar.
Many European dramas have been translated into Kashmiri and some of them have been staged. Radio drama is a very popular genre in Kashmiri. Mention may be made of Pushkar Bhan’s Machama –a social satire, which was a great success. Som Nath Zutshi, Akhtar Mohi-ud-din, Ali Mohammad Lone, Avatar Krishan Rahbar, Soom Nath Sadhu, Bansi Nirdosh, Shankar Raina, Hriday Kaul Bharati, Rattan Lal Shant, Amar Malmohi, Bashir Dada and Sajood Sailani are some of the successful radio drama writers in Kashmiri.
The Short Story
Dina Nath Nadim and Soom Nath Zutshi are the first ones whose short stories Jawaabee Card and Yeli phol Gaash were published in Kwong Posh in March 1950. Arjun Dev Majboor followed with his Kwolivaan. The other writers who started short story writing are Aziz Haroon and Noor Mohammad. Some more writers who came to forefront include Amin Kamil, Umesh Kaul, Ghulam Ahmad Sofi, Akhtar Mohi-ud-din and Deepak Kaul. Short stories of these writers are motivated by the Progressive Movement in form and content. However, these writers introduced the genre in Kashmiri and paved the way for new writers who were not bound by any political convention or some particular social philosophy. They started to think for themselves and this affected their writings. Akhtar felt the change and tried to develop short story according to the demands of creativity. He created realistic situations with moving characters .His short story collection Sath Sangar was published in 1955. His second collection Sonzal shows better growth of his creativity. Amin Kamil’s collection Kathi Manz Kath shows his understanding of character and deep observation of society. Kokar Jung is the most famous story of his. Generally Kamil uses a light satire and tries to tear off the curtains of hypocrisy. Sofi Ghulam Mohammad has two collections Sheesha ta Sangistaan and Loosymuty Taarkh to his credit. He writes fine prose but has less art of characterization. Bansi Nirdosh has three short story collections to his name viz Baal Maraayo, Adam Chhu Yithai Badnaam and Girdaab. Nirdosh has mastered the art of story telling. Avatar Krishna Rahbar’s Tobruk, a short story collection, has fine technique, suitable language and art of characterization.
Short story writers continued with new experiments and more stress was given on character development than plot. Writers like Ali Mohammad lone, Santosh, Bharti, Hari Krishen Kaul and Shant made inroads into new trends. Akhtar continued to develop his short stories with new patterns. Gahe Taaph Gahe Shihul, Rotul, Mayate Kath, Irtqa, Hatak are some of the short stories that show his experiments with structure and the changed attitudes for creating a tense atmosphere with inner conflicts of the character at subjective level.
Hari Krishan Kaul Taaph (Sunshine) written in 1967 is his first short story. His other short story includes Pati laaraan parbat , Haalas chu Rotul, Yeth Razdaanaya and Zool Apaaraum. Kaul’s diction is a mirror of his art. Kaul has his own style and does not bother for experimentation. He has always something to convey and his stories are multidimensional. A tender satire is a pleasant factor in his fiction. The ordinary events of common day life within the frame of a particular culture and a political setup provide the basic substance to his short stories. His colloquial is a beauty.
Rattan Lal Shant has three collections of short stories namely Achhar Waalan Pyath Koh, Trikoonjal andRaevimut Maane to his credit. Shant knows the art of short story and that is why his short stories are well streamlined. He knows the use of words and is never extravagant in his use of language. He presents characters with all sorts of tensions and deals with them with perfect psychological understanding. The short stories in Trikoonjal present a three dimensional social picture where characters act and react with their own motives. Shant writes with perfect understanding of the cultural patterns involved.
Hriday Kaul Bharati’s short stories present abundance of experimentation. His short stories are subjective and are much more abstract. He uses symbols freely and does not follow the traditional plot, character or social setting. His Humzaad, tsakarvyuh, Mili hund Deh are his representative short stories.
Some other short story writers include Bashir Akthar, Amar Malmohi, Ghulam Nabi Baba, Abbas Taabash, Ghulam Nabi Shakir, Farooq Massudi, Gulshan Majid, Shamas-ud-din Shameem, Chaman Lal Hakku, Shafi Shooq, Majrooh Rashid, Nazir Jahaghir, Iqbaal Fahim, Rattan Johar and Makhanlal Pandita.
After the exodus of 1990 some writers have influenced short story writing with their creative activity .One of them is Roop Krishen Bhat. His short story collection Harda Vaav shows that the writer is very conscious about the rapidly occurring changes, their impact upon the individual and society. Roop Krishen’s stories present tensions, conflicts and the helplessness of man who is alienated under the force of unpredictable circumstances.
Novel in Kashmiri language has not developed like in other Indian languages. The main reason for this is the multilingual character of the State of Jammu and Kashmir. There is not much readership for novel. Kashmiri people prefer to read novels in Urdu, Hindi and English. In such circumstances very few novels as listed below can be termed as commendable though none of the novels possesses perfection.
1. Dod Dag Akthar Mohi-ud-din 1958 2. Gati Manz Gaash Mohd. Amin Kamil 1959 3. Asyti Chhi Insaan Ali Mohd. Lone 4. Mujriam Ghulam Nabi Gauhar 1972 5. Myul Ghulam Nabi Gauhar 1973 6. Akh Door Bansi Nirdoosh 1975 7. Tresh ta Tarpan Amar Malmohi 1976 8. Pyon ta Paap Ghulam Nabi Gauhar 1986 9. Sheen ta Vatapod Pran Kishore 1989 10. Dastan-e-Amir Jaan Bashar Bashir 1994
Literary Criticism and Research
Abdul Ahad Azad has the honor of being the first literary research scholar and critic in Kashmiri. He wrote three volumes of Kashmiri Zabaan aur Shayiraa with deep research and critical insight.
Mohi-ud-din Hajni contributed to criticism and research with his Muqalaat and other works.
State Cultural Academy Publications: The Academy published many research works regarding the poets and writers of various Ages. Such Collections include critical assessments by scholars like Mohd. Yusuf Taing, Moti Lal Saqi, Mohd. Amin Kamil and Rasheed Nazki. The Academy also published some collections of folk songs and folk stories. Most of the critical essays written by the individual authors were published in the journals of Academy – Sheeraza and Son Ada.
Mohd. Yusaf Taing is a leading critic with colourfulness of language not quite suited for criticism. However, Taing has a high degree of critical insight, vast study and clear perceptions. Talash is a collection of his critical essays.
Anhaar, journal of Kashmir University helped greatly in evolving literary criticism and expanding the cipher of literary research. Rahmaan Rahi is a very important modern critic with clear perceptions and remarkable understanding. He is well versed in the European trends of criticism. Kahwat is considered the threshold of modern trends in the art of criticism.
Ratan Lal Shant is a well-versed literary critic. He has written many thought provoking articles about practical criticism. His work Kaashur Afsana ‘Az-ta-Pagah’ is a critical analysis of the merits and demerits of the modern short story. It shows the depth of understanding Kashmiri, English and Hindi literature.
Amar Malmohi’s interest is on contemporary criticism. His Vakshnay ta Vatshnay is a collection of articles presenting objective criticism.
Naji Munawar interest is on research rather than on criticism and Pursaan is his well known criticism.
Ghlushan Majid and Shafi Shouq are critics with modern sensibilities. They have contributed much to the development of criticism and research. Shouq has written Kaashiri Adabuk Tawaareekh.
Trilokinath Raina writes in English and has rendered valuable services to Kashmiri language by his translations, critical appreciations and research. His latest work A History of Kashmiri Literature is a commendable work.
Basic experiments of essay writing were made in the Pratap magazine of S.P College Srinagar. But no serious efforts were made to develop essay for a long time. Some essays were written by Somnath Sadhu and Sofi Ghulam Mohammad. But the pioneer in Kashmiri essay writing is Mohammad Zamaan Azurdah. He made essay a distinct literary form in Kashmiri. He has added colourfulnes to Kashmiri prose by the variety of his essays. Fikar ta Tikar (1980) and Nuna Posh (1986) are his two essay collections. His essays bear the impact of Pitras Bukhari and some other Urdu writers. Humor and satire makes his essays very interesting. He creates humorous situations.
Rasool Pampur and Manzoor Hashmi have also contributed to essay writing. Zaifraan Zaar is a collection of Hashmi’s humorous essays. Zareef Ahmad Zareef makes his essays very interesting by the use of natural Kashmiri idiom. Ghulam Ali Majboor writes fine essays, which seem spontaneous and colourful. Pushkar Nath Dhari’s Cheti Naav is a fine collection of literary and social critical essays.
Prof. J.L Kaul has the credit of using Kashmiri for the first time in print word (1936) in the magazine of S. P. College. It was followed by Lalla Rukh magazine of Amar Singh college. However it was Mahjoor who published Gaash newspaper but could not continue it. In 1949 Pamposh a journal was brought out at Delhi. In 1952 Mirza Arif brought out Gulreez. Information department of J&K Government devoted a part to Kashmiri in Urdu Tameer in 1960. Presently the same institution publishes a bi-monthly literary journal Aalov. This journal has achieved good reputation within a short period of time. The publication of many journals continued for some time but none of them could go on for some considerable period of time. These Journals include:
Journal Editor Year Desh S.N Sadhu 1957 Wattan G.N Khayaal 1962 Chaman G.R Nazki 1965 Neb Amin Kamil 1968 Kaashur Adab G.R Santosh 19? Aash Shouq & Gulshan 1970 Kaashur Akhbaar Cultural Organisation 1974
The above-mentioned journals could not continue their publication for a considerable period of time due to many reasons. The State Cultural Academy has been publishing Son Adab and Sheeraaza regularly.
Kaashur Samachar continues regular publication. Now its under the editorship of S.N.Bhat Haleem. Kshir Bhawani Times (Jammu), Vitasta (Kolkatta), Naad (Delhi), Patrikaa (Delhi) are some of the journals which have a considerable Kashmiri portion in Devnagri.
Samprati is a centre for preserving culture and language of the Kashmiri exiled batch at Jammu. It publishes Satisar, a literary journal in Persian script.
8.5 The Translations
Below is the list of Kashmiri translations worth mentioning:
Author Work Translator Aristotle Poetics Ghulam Nabi Khayyal Arabian Nights Mohi-ud-din Hajini Agha Shahid Ali Country without Post Office Shafi Shauq Arthur Miller Death Of a Salesman Mohan Nirash Abdul Kalam Azad Tarjaman al Quarn M A Shaida Bhabani Bhattacharya Shadow from Ladakh Shaqi Shauq Cervantes Don Quixote Shyam Lal Sadhu Chekov The Three Sisters Rattan Lal Shant Franz Kakka The Trial Soom Nath Zutshi Goethe Faust Ghulam Nabi Firaq Goldsmith She Stoops to Conquer Autar Krishen Rahbar Galsworthy Justice Akbar Ali Ansari M.K. Gandhi My Experiments with Truth Akther Mohi-ud-din Talib Gurbachen Singh Sheikh Baba Farid-ud-din Rahman Rahi Guru Gobind Singh Jappaji Sahib Fazil Kashmiri Baha Ullah Ta Mohd. Amin Kamil Asar-I- Jadeed Henrik Ibsen The Wild Duck Soom Nath Zutshi Ghosts Akhtar Mohi-ud-din Khayyam Rubaiyat Ghulam Hassan Big Arif Khayyam Rubaiyat Ghulam Nabi Khayyal Keats, Tennyson Selected Poems Khizir Magribi and Ghulam Nabi Firaq Kalidas Malvikagnimitra Bansi Nirdosh Maxim Gorky Mother Ali Mohammad Lone Man is Born Rahman Rahi Mohammad Abdulla Hadees-I-Sharif Margoob Banihali and Taaree Nicoloi Gogol The Inspector General Soom Nath Zutshi Rajinder Sing Bedi Ek Chaadar Maili Si Rasul Pampur Som Dev Katha Sarit Sagar Amar Malmohi Saidi Gulistan G.H.Taskeen William Shakespeare Othello Ghulam Nabi Nazir King Lear Naji Munawar Julius Caesar Naji Munawar Sophocles Dedipusees Naji munawar Sumitra Nandan Pant Vyor Prithvi Nath Pushp Sudha Murti Wise and otherwise Shafi Shauq Leo Tolstoy War and Peace Muzaffar Azim Rabindranath Tagore The Post Office Mohd. Amin Kamil Raja O Rani Mohd. Amin Kamil Red Oleanders Noor Mod. Roshan Chandalika Noor Mohd. Roshan Mukut Dhara Ali Mohammad Lone Cycle of Spring Gh. Hassan Beg Arif Reeta Gh. Hassan Beg Arif Chitra Autar Krishen Rahbar Gitanjali Moti Lal Naaz James Maurier Haji Baba of Isphahan Shamas-ud-din Unknown Panchastavi Jia Lal Saraf Vishnu Sharma Panchtantra (Persian) Margoob Banihali __________ World short Stories (1) S L Sadhu __________ World short Stories (2) Naji Munawar Vijay Tendulkar Kanya Daan Shafi Shouq Rawapad Chowdhury Ghar Badhi Rattanlal Shant Oscar Wilde Salome Rattanlal Shant Albermin India Rattanlal Shant Omkar Koul Mulaqgat Pyare Hatash
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